How to format your references using the Journal of Tribology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Tribology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Elmegreen, B. G., 2007, “Astronomy. Dark Matter in Galactic Collisional Debris,” Science, 316(5828), pp. 1132–1133.
A journal article with 2 authors
Godfray, C., and Hassell, M., 2005, “Obituary: Richard Southwood (1931-2005),” Nature, 438(7070), p. 928.
A journal article with 3 authors
Seidel, H. S., Rockman, M. V., and Kruglyak, L., 2008, “Widespread Genetic Incompatibility in C. Elegans Maintained by Balancing Selection,” Science, 319(5863), pp. 589–594.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Grigera, S. A., Perry, R. S., Schofield, A. J., Chiao, M., Julian, S. R., Lonzarich, G. G., Ikeda, S. I., Maeno, Y., Millis, A. J., and Mackenzie, A. P., 2001, “Magnetic Field-Tuned Quantum Criticality in the Metallic Ruthenate Sr3Ru2O7,” Science, 294(5541), pp. 329–332.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tavakoli, J. M., 2008, Structured Finance and Collateralized Debt Obligations, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Tirri, K., and Nokelainen, P., eds., 2011, Measuring Multiple Intelligences and Moral Sensitivities in Education, SensePublishers, Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Kashmiri, S. M., and Makinwa, K. A. A., 2013, “An Electrothermal Frequency Reference in Standard 0.7 Μm CMOS,” Electrothermal Frequency References in Standard CMOS, K.A.A. Makinwa, ed., Springer, New York, NY, pp. 129–151.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Tribology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2015, “Huge Announcement From SpaceX Coming Soon, Possibly Regarding A Future Mars Mission,” IFLScience [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2009, Small Business Innovation Research: Observations on Agencies’ Data Collection and Eligibility Determination Efforts, GAO-09-956T, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hylton, J. K., 2016, “Scatter; Or, A Series or Minor Inconveniences,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2010, “In the End, Conduct Is What Counts,” New York Times, p. B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Tribology
AbbreviationJ. Tribol.
ISSN (print)0742-4787
ISSN (online)1528-8897
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Surfaces and Interfaces

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