How to format your references using the Journal of Tribology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Tribology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
May, M., 2013, “Regenerative Medicine: Rebuilding the Backbone,” Nature, 503(7475), pp. S7-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, Y., and Pfeiffer, J. K., 2014, “Microbiology: A Backup for Bacteria,” Nature, 516(7529), pp. 42–43.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kieffer, H. H., Christensen, P. R., and Titus, T. N., 2006, “CO2 Jets Formed by Sublimation beneath Translucent Slab Ice in Mars’ Seasonal South Polar Ice Cap,” Nature, 442(7104), pp. 793–796.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu, J., Daily, G. C., Ehrlich, P. R., and Luck, G. W., 2003, “Effects of Household Dynamics on Resource Consumption and Biodiversity,” Nature, 421(6922), pp. 530–533.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Exposito, E., 2012, Advanced Transport Protocols, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Karacapilidis, N., ed., 2014, Mastering Data-Intensive Collaboration and Decision Making: Research and Practical Applications in the Dicode Project, Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Fifka, M., and Loza Adaui, C. R., 2015, “Managing Stakeholders for the Sake of Business and Society,” New Perspectives on Corporate Social Responsibility: Locating the Missing Link, L. O’Riordan, P. Zmuda, and S. Heinemann, eds., Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden, pp. 71–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Tribology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016, “An Unseen Asteroid Passed Very Close To Earth Last Sunday,” IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2011, Federal Bureau of Investigation: Actions Taken to Address Most Procurement Recommendations, GAO-11-794, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Griner, K. F., 2014, “The Effectiveness of the Integrative Career Counseling Model,” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J., 2017, “‘The Show That I Was Born to Do,’” New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Tribology
AbbreviationJ. Tribol.
ISSN (print)0742-4787
ISSN (online)1528-8897
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Surfaces and Interfaces

Other styles