How to format your references using the Virology Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virology Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Farr, N.L., 2000. Questioning placebo controls. Science 288, 1747c.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wyithe, J.S.B., Loeb, A., 2002. Magnification of light from many distant quasars by gravitational lenses. Nature 417, 923–925.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brockmann, D., Hufnagel, L., Geisel, T., 2006. The scaling laws of human travel. Nature 439, 462–465.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gao, Y.-G., Selmer, M., Dunham, C.M., Weixlbaumer, A., Kelley, A.C., Ramakrishnan, V., 2009. The structure of the ribosome with elongation factor G trapped in the posttranslocational state. Science 326, 694–699.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bowers, D., House, A., Owens, D., 2011. Getting Started in Health Research. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Tinning, R., Sirna, K. (Eds.), 2011. Education, Social Justice and the Legacy of Deakin University: Reflections of the Deakin Diaspora, Transgressions: Cultural Studies and Education. SensePublishers, Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Roze, E., Bonnet, C., Betuing, S., Caboche, J., 2010. Huntington’s Disease, in: Ahmad, S.I. (Ed.), Diseases of DNA Repair, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 45–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virology Reports.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Systematic Review Finds Side Effects Of Vaccines Are Extremely Rare [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. Nanomanufacturing and U.S. Competitiveness: Challenges and Opportunities (No. GAO-14-618T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ciolek, R., 2017. A Mixed Method Study on the Missouri Beginning Teachers Assistance Program and Teacher Retention in Saint Louis School Districts (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Risen, J., Fink, S., 2017. Trump’s Talk on Torture Adds to Global Anxiety. New York Times A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Farr, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Farr, 2000; Wyithe and Loeb, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wyithe and Loeb, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Gao et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleVirology Reports
AbbreviationVirol. Rep.
ISSN (print)2214-6695

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