How to format your references using the Virology Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virology Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lazer, D., 2015. Social sciences. The rise of the social algorithm. Science 348, 1090–1091.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chudinovskikh, L., Boehler, R., 2001. High-pressure polymorphs of olivine and the 660-km seismic discontinuity. Nature 411, 574–577.
A journal article with 3 authors
Luo, Z.X., Crompton, A.W., Sun, A.L., 2001. A new mammaliaform from the early Jurassic and evolution of mammalian characteristics. Science 292, 1535–1540.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bendkowsky, V., Butscher, B., Nipper, J., Shaffer, J.P., Löw, R., Pfau, T., 2009. Observation of ultralong-range Rydberg molecules. Nature 458, 1005–1008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maillard, P., 2013. Competitive Quality Strategies. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Fister, I., Fister, I., Jr. (Eds.), 2015. Adaptation and Hybridization in Computational Intelligence, Adaptation, Learning, and Optimization. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Villar Piqué, G., Alarcón, E., 2011. Buck Converter Design Space Exploration with Detailed Component Models, in: Alarcón, E. (Ed.), CMOS Integrated Switching Power Converters: A Structured Design Approach. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 121–132.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virology Reports.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Researchers And Politicians Slam The War On Drugs As A Failure [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1979. Assessing the Output of Federal Commercially Directed R&D (No. PAD-79-69). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crider, M.C., 2012. The social and environmental effects of shrimp mariculture: Case studies of two coastal villages in Ecuador (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chapman, M.M., Bosman, J., 2014. Man Guilty of Murdering Woman at His Front Door. New York Times A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lazer, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Chudinovskikh and Boehler, 2001; Lazer, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chudinovskikh and Boehler, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Bendkowsky et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleVirology Reports
AbbreviationVirol. Rep.
ISSN (print)2214-6695

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