How to format your references using the Virology Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virology Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wickware, P., 2000. Next-generation biologists must straddle computation and biology. Nature 404, 683–684.
A journal article with 2 authors
Caughey, B., Baron, G.S., 2006. Prions and their partners in crime. Nature 443, 803–810.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sang, L., Coller, H.A., Roberts, J.M., 2008. Control of the reversibility of cellular quiescence by the transcriptional repressor HES1. Science 321, 1095–1100.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ao, H., Dekkers, M.J., Wei, Q., Qiang, X., Xiao, G., 2013. New evidence for early presence of hominids in North China. Sci. Rep. 3, 2403.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Borisenko, V.E., Ossicini, S., 2012. What is What in the Nanoworld. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Biondi-Zoccai, G. (Ed.), 2016. Umbrella Reviews: Evidence Synthesis with Overviews of Reviews and Meta-Epidemiologic Studies, 1st ed. 2016. ed. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Collignon, T.P., van Gijzen, M.B., 2010. Parallel Scientific Computing on Loosely Coupled Networks of Computers, in: Koren, B., Vuik, K. (Eds.), Advanced Computational Methods in Science and Engineering, Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 79–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virology Reports.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Imposter Nanosponges Fight Antibiotic-Resistant Infection [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1979. NAVSTAR Global Positioning System--A Program With Many Uncertainties (No. PSAD-79-16). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dean, D.O., 2012. A discrete-time multiple event process survival mixture (MEPSUM) model for investigating the order and timing of multiple non-repeatable events (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, S., 1978. The Canadiens; and Soul Hockey No Politics on Ice Flyers a Different Breed. New York Times SportsS2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wickware, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Caughey and Baron, 2006; Wickware, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Caughey and Baron, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Ao et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleVirology Reports
AbbreviationVirol. Rep.
ISSN (print)2214-6695

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