How to format your references using the Virology Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virology Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jordan, F., 2004. Biochemistry. How active sites communicate in thiamine enzymes. Science 306, 818–820.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jagoutz, O., Behn, M.D., 2013. Foundering of lower island-arc crust as an explanation for the origin of the continental Moho. Nature 504, 131–134.
A journal article with 3 authors
Maurer, S.M., Hugenholtz, P.B., Onsrud, H.J., 2001. Intellectual property. Europe’s database experiment. Science 294, 789–790.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fuerst, P.G., Koizumi, A., Masland, R.H., Burgess, R.W., 2008. Neurite arborization and mosaic spacing in the mouse retina require DSCAM. Nature 451, 470–474.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yan, S.Y., 2012. Computational Number Theory and Modern Cryptography. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd., Fusionopolis Walk, Singapore.
An edited book
Gramlich, B. (Ed.), 2005. Frontiers of Combining Systems: 5th International Workshop, FroCoS 2005, Vienna, Austria, September 19-21, 2005. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Getz, J., Goresky, M., 2012. Review of Arithmetic Quotients, in: Goresky, M. (Ed.), Hilbert Modular Forms with Coefficients in Intersection Homology and Quadratic Base Change. Springer, Basel, pp. 41–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virology Reports.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Spectacular Photograph Shows Earliest Stars That Formed In Our Universe [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. No Child Left Behind Act: Education Could Do More to Help States Better Define Graduation Rates and Improve Knowledge about Intervention Strategies (No. GAO-05-879). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Valadez, I., 2010. A psycho-education peer support group for homeless youth: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky, L., 2011. Logos à Go-Go. New York Times ST3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jordan, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Jagoutz and Behn, 2013; Jordan, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jagoutz and Behn, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Fuerst et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleVirology Reports
AbbreviationVirol. Rep.
ISSN (print)2214-6695

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