How to format your references using the Virology Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virology Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Norenzayan, A., 2011. Behavior. Explaining human behavioral diversity. Science 332, 1041–1042.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fisher, C.R., Girguis, P., 2007. Microbiology. A proteomic snapshot of life at a vent. Science 315, 198–199.
A journal article with 3 authors
Finkel, T., Serrano, M., Blasco, M.A., 2007. The common biology of cancer and ageing. Nature 448, 767–774.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhao, Y.-Y., Inoue, A., Chang, C., Liu, J., Shen, B., Wang, X., Li, R.-W., 2014. Composition effect on intrinsic plasticity or brittleness in metallic glasses. Sci. Rep. 4, 5733.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Habart-Corlosquet, M., Janssen, J., Manca, R., 2013. VaR Methodology for Non-Gaussian Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Benedetti, R., 2015. Sampling Spatial Units for Agricultural Surveys, Advances in Spatial Science, The Regional Science Series. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Oldenburg, J., Schröder, J., Schwaab, R., Müller-Reible, C., Seifried, E., Hanfland, P., Brackmann, H.-H., 2006. Mutation Type Dependent Inhibitor Risk — a Single Center Study on 432 Patients with Severe Hemophilia A, in: Scharrer, I., Schramm, W. (Eds.), 35th Hemophilia Symposium: Hamburg 2004. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 33–33.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virology Reports.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2017. How To Cut Through When Talking To Anti-Vaxxers And Anti-Fluoriders [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1974. New Navajo Construction Activities on the Navajo and Hopi Joint-Use Area (No. B-114868). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cong, M., 2017. A Comparative Analysis of Acculturative Stress Among Mainland Chinese and Taiwanese International Students at a Hispanic Serving University (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S., 2000. Woodstock on the Volga: Protest Ages Into Singalong. New York Times E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Norenzayan, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Fisher and Girguis, 2007; Norenzayan, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fisher and Girguis, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhao et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleVirology Reports
AbbreviationVirol. Rep.
ISSN (print)2214-6695

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