How to format your references using the The Journal of Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott A. Concern raised for missing biologist. Nature 2001; 414: 475
A journal article with 2 authors
Sykora S, Becker KW. Heavy fermion properties of the Kondo Lattice model. Sci Rep 2013; 3: 2691
A journal article with 3 authors
Su W, Bagshaw CR, Burley GA. Addressable and unidirectional energy transfer along a DNA three-way junction programmed by pyrrole-imidazole polyamides. Sci Rep 2013; 3: 1883
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fukuda R, McNew JA, Weber T, et al. Functional architecture of an intracellular membrane t-SNARE. Nature 2000; 407: 198-202

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cantrell RS, Cosner C. Spatial Ecology via Reaction-Diffusion Equations. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2004.
An edited book
Niederhuber JE. Totally Implantable Venous Access Devices: Management in Mid- and Long-Term Clinical Setting. (Carlo ID, Biffi R, eds.). Milano: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Lesmes DP, Friedman SP. Relationships between the Electrical and Hydrogeological Properties of Rocks and Soils. In Rubin Y, Hubbard SS, eds. Hydrogeophysics. Water Science and Technology Library. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2005; 87-128.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Pathology.

Blog post
Taub B. Smart Homes Of The Future Could Read And React To Your Emotions. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Funding Mechanisms in Support of University Research. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yelkenci S. Algorithmic Music Composition Using Linear Algebra. 2017

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. Drop Out, Dive In, Start Up. New York Times. September 16, 2012:BU1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Pathology
AbbreviationJ. Pathol.
ISSN (print)0022-3417
ISSN (online)1096-9896
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

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