How to format your references using the The Journal of Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kerr RA. CLIMATE: Ice, Mud Point to CO2 Role in Glacial Cycle. Science 2000; 289: 1868
A journal article with 2 authors
Strausfeld NJ, Hirth F. Deep homology of arthropod central complex and vertebrate basal ganglia. Science 2013; 340: 157-161
A journal article with 3 authors
Griffith S, Goldwater D, Jacobson JM. Robotics: self-replication from random parts. Nature 2005; 437: 636
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Feng AS, Narins PM, Xu C-H, et al. Ultrasonic communication in frogs. Nature 2006; 440: 333-336

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. Guidelines for Process Safety in Batch Reaction Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1999.
An edited book
Srivastava A. Functional and Shape Data Analysis. (Klassen EP, ed.). New York, NY: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
LeoGrande WM. The End of the Bogeyman: The Political Repercussions of the US-Cuban Rapprochement. In Hershberg E, LeoGrande WM, eds. A New Chapter in US-Cuba Relations: Social, Political, and Economic Implications. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016; 53-65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Pathology.

Blog post
Hamilton K. 10,000-Year-Old Stone Tools Unearthed In Washington State. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: Evaluation of Small Business Innovation Research Can Be Strengthened. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Simsic G. Revisiting Addiction Using Depth Psychology: The Myth of Exodus as a Blueprint for Recovery. 2012

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick SM. A Twist on the Neighborhood Bar. New York Times. April 27, 2014:LI11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Pathology
AbbreviationJ. Pathol.
ISSN (print)0022-3417
ISSN (online)1096-9896
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles