How to format your references using the The Journal of Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kreeger K. Location, location, location. Nature 2003; 421: 766-767
A journal article with 2 authors
Sutherland WJ, Burgman M. Policy advice: Use experts wisely. Nature 2015; 526: 317-318
A journal article with 3 authors
Rawson PD, Yund PO, Lindsay SM. Comment on ‘Divergent induced responses to an invasive predator in marine mussel populations’. Science 2007; 316: 53; author reply 53
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang H, Keum JK, Hiltner A, et al. Confined crystallization of polyethylene oxide in nanolayer assemblies. Science 2009; 323: 757-760

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Johnston D. A Brief History of Justice. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Wang L. Hyperspectral Image Processing. (Zhao C, ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Barton A, Mayboroda S. Higher-Order Elliptic Equations in Non-Smooth Domains: a Partial Survey. In Pereyra MC, Marcantognini S, Stokolos AM et al., eds. Harmonic Analysis, Partial Differential Equations, Complex Analysis, Banach Spaces, and Operator Theory (Volume 1): Celebrating Cora Sadosky’s Life. Association for Women in Mathematics Series. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016; 55-121.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Pathology.

Blog post
Luntz S. “Surprising” Oral Vaccine Stops HIV In Monkeys. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. International Air Passengers: Staffing Model for Airport Inspections Personnel Can Be Improved. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brigida MD. Target stock price runup prior to acquisitions. 2009

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rashbaum WK, McKINLEY JC Jr. 106 Are Charged in Lengthy Fraud Over Disabilities. New York Times. January 7, 2014:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Pathology
AbbreviationJ. Pathol.
ISSN (print)0022-3417
ISSN (online)1096-9896
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

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