How to format your references using the Smart Water citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Smart Water. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maxmen A (2013) Drug development: A combined effort. Nature 502:S4-6
A journal article with 2 authors
Theise ND, Wilmut I (2003) Cell plasticity: flexible arrangement. Nature 425:21
A journal article with 3 authors
Prakash M, Quéré D, Bush JWM (2008) Surface tension transport of prey by feeding shorebirds: the capillary ratchet. Science 320:931–934
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Schueler-Furman O, Wang C, Bradley P, et al (2005) Progress in modeling of protein structures and interactions. Science 310:638–642

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thatcher A (2011) God, Sex, and Gender. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Bian F, Xie Y (eds) (2016) Geo-Informatics in Resource Management and Sustainable Ecosystem: Third International Conference, GRMSE 2015, Wuhan, China, October 16-18, 2015, Revised Selected Papers, 1st ed. 2016. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Mulvey JM, Erkan HG (2009) An Enterprise Risk Management Model for Supply Chains. In: Chaovalitwongse W, Furman KC, Pardalos PM (eds) Optimization and Logistics Challenges in the Enterprise. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 177–189

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Smart Water.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Second ‘Super Moon’ Of The Summer On August 10. In: IFLScience.‘super-moon’-summer-august-10/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Automating Medical Information. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Terry EJ (2008) In search of leadership: A look at women presidents in Georgia’s two-year colleges and technical colleges. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J (2017) One Book, One City. New York Times C2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Maxmen 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Theise and Wilmut 2003; Maxmen 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Theise and Wilmut 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Schueler-Furman et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleSmart Water
AbbreviationSmart Water
ISSN (online)2198-2619

Other styles