How to format your references using the Smart Water citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Smart Water. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P (2002) The physics imbalance. Nature 419:3
A journal article with 2 authors
Beller S, Bender A (2008) The limits of counting: numerical cognition between evolution and culture. Science 319:213–215
A journal article with 3 authors
Bandyopadhyay PR, Leinhos HA, Hellum AM (2013) Handedness helps homing in swimming and flying animals. Sci Rep 3:1128
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Chen L, Park S-M, Tumanov AV, et al (2010) CD95 promotes tumour growth. Nature 465:492–496

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fiorenzani S, Ravelli S, Edoli E (2012) The Handbook of Energy Trading. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, UK
An edited book
Mandal DK, Syan CS (eds) (2016) CAD/CAM, Robotics and Factories of the Future: Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on CARs & FoF 2016. Springer India, New Delhi
A chapter in an edited book
Iwahori Y, Tatematsu K, Nakamura T, et al (2015) 3D Shape Recovery from Endoscope Image Based on Both Photometric and Geometric Constraints. In: Tweedale JW, Jain LC, Watada J, Howlett RJ (eds) Knowledge-Based Information Systems in Practice. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 65–80

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Smart Water.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Highest Altitude Ice Age Settlement Found in the Peruvian Andes. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996) Education and Employment Issue Area: Active Assignments. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Detweiler KR (2012) Exploring Discursive Interaction, Habitus, and Dynamic Co-emergence Among an Agency Leader and Congressional Oversight Committee: A Case Study of Languaging in Practice. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M (2017) Juilliard Announces New Leader. New York Times C2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2002; Beller and Bender 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Beller and Bender 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleSmart Water
AbbreviationSmart Water
ISSN (online)2198-2619

Other styles