How to format your references using the Smart Water citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Smart Water. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ward-Thompson D (2002) Isolated star formation: from cloud formation to core collapse. Science 295:76–81
A journal article with 2 authors
Bird JP, Ochiai Y (2004) Physics. Electron spin polarization in nanoscale constrictions. Science 303:1621–1622
A journal article with 3 authors
Wu D-A, Kanai R, Shimojo S (2004) Vision: steady-state misbinding of colour and motion. Nature 429:262
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Li X, Mao Z, Wu M, Xia J (2013) Rescuing infertility of Pick1 knockout mice by generating testis-specific transgenic mice via testicular infection. Sci Rep 3:2842

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mix PE (2004) Introduction to Nondestructive Testing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Schomburg D, Schomburg I, Chang A (eds) (2007) Class 2 • Transferases IX: EC–, Second Edition. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Ratzenhofer-Komenda B, Favory R, Welslau W, et al (2006) Physiologic Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen on Oxygen Transport and Tissue Oxygen Pressure. In: Mathieu D (ed) Handbook on Hyperbaric Medicine. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 49–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Smart Water.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) What Is Interplanetary Dust And Can It Spread The Ingredients Of Life? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1981) Status Report on Executive Branch Implementation of the National Materials and Minerals Policy, Research and Development Act of 1980. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sumner I (2010) Quantum wavepacket ab initio molecular dynamics: Simulating quantum nuclear effects in complex systems. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW, de la MERCED MJ (2010) A.I.G. Chairman Resigns, Citing Clash With Chief. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ward-Thompson 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Ward-Thompson 2002; Bird and Ochiai 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bird and Ochiai 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSmart Water
AbbreviationSmart Water
ISSN (online)2198-2619

Other styles