How to format your references using the Smart Water citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Smart Water. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harte J (2008) An ecologist notes that important details are missing from climate-change models. Nature 454:1033
A journal article with 2 authors
Sprang SR, Elk JC (2012) Cell signaling. Structural origins of receptor bias. Science 335:1055–1056
A journal article with 3 authors
Nava E, Steiger T, Röder B (2014) Both developmental and adult vision shape body representations. Sci Rep 4:6622
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zhang Y, Fan H, Xu J, et al (2013) Network analysis reveals functional cross-links between disease and inflammation genes. Sci Rep 3:3426

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gregory J (2012) Counterparty Credit Risk and Credit Value Adjustment. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Russell CT (ed) (2007) The Mars Plasma Environment. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Specht EJ, Jones HT, Calkins KG, Rhoads DH (2015) Pasch Geometry (PSH). In: Jones HT, Calkins KG, Rhoads DH (eds) Euclidean Geometry and its Subgeometries. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 79–138

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Smart Water.

Blog post
Hale T (2017) Deer Photographed Gnawing On Human Remains For The First Time. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986) Guaranteed Student Loans: Guidelines for Reducing Guaranty Agency Reserves. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoch VA (2014) The Effects of Systematic Reinforcement on Academic Performance in Precision Teaching: An Investigation of Acquisition, Retention, and Endurance. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich JR (2017) A Sequel of Sorts, Made to Challenge Singers. New York Times C2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Harte 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Harte 2008; Sprang and Elk 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sprang and Elk 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSmart Water
AbbreviationSmart Water
ISSN (online)2198-2619

Other styles