How to format your references using the Smart Water citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Smart Water. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston D (2007) Political climate. Nature 450:333
A journal article with 2 authors
Thurner S, Poledna S (2013) DebtRank-transparency: controlling systemic risk in financial networks. Sci Rep 3:1888
A journal article with 3 authors
Karlseder J, Smogorzewska A, de Lange T (2002) Senescence induced by altered telomere state, not telomere loss. Science 295:2446–2449
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wang X, Huong S-M, Chiu ML, et al (2003) Epidermal growth factor receptor is a cellular receptor for human cytomegalovirus. Nature 424:456–461

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rigo M (2014) Formal Languages, Automata and Numeration Systems 1. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Chib A, May J, Barrantes R (eds) (2015) Impact of Information Society Research in the Global South. Springer, Singapore
A chapter in an edited book
Ali HE, Sami SM (2016) Inequality, Economic Growth and Natural Resources Rent: Evidence From the Middle East and North Africa. In: Stiglitz JE, Guzman M (eds) Contemporary Issues in Microeconomics. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp 50–76

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Smart Water.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Orange Is The New Black Gold: How Peel Could Replace Crude Oil In Plastics. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Travel System Requirements. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schoenecker KD (2010) Determinants of life satisfaction: Generated and ranked by undergraduate college students. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bray C, Kanter J (2017) E.U. Proposal May Shrink London’s Financial Footprint. New York Times B2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goldston 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Goldston 2007; Thurner and Poledna 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thurner and Poledna 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleSmart Water
AbbreviationSmart Water
ISSN (online)2198-2619

Other styles