How to format your references using the Veterinary Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler, D. Public library set to turn publisher as boycott looms. Nature 2001, 412, 469.
A journal article with 2 authors
Noakes, T.; Spedding, M. Olympics: Run for your life. Nature 2012, 487, 295–296.
A journal article with 3 authors
Elsner, J.B.; Kossin, J.P.; Jagger, T.H. The increasing intensity of the strongest tropical cyclones. Nature 2008, 455, 92–95.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yamazaki, Y.; Hirai, Y.; Miyake, K.; Shimada, T. Targeted gene transfer into ependymal cells through intraventricular injection of AAV1 vector and long-term enzyme replacement via the CSF. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5506.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gustafsson, F. Adaptive Filtering and Change Detection; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2001; ISBN 9780470841617.
An edited book
Education and Youth Agency: Qualitative Case Studies in Global Contexts; DeJaeghere, J.G., Josić, J., McCleary, K.S., Eds.; Advancing Responsible Adolescent Development; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319333427.
A chapter in an edited book
Píštěk, V.; Novotný, P.; Drápal, L. 3D Slide Bearing Model for Virtual Engine. In Recent Advances in Mechatronics; Brezina, T., Jablonski, R., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; pp. 25–30 ISBN 9783642050213.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary Sciences.

Blog post
Andrews, R. Thawing Ancient Permafrost Shown To Rapidly Become Carbon Dioxide Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Savings Possible by Buying Automatic Data Processing Equipment or by Leasing It From Commercial Leasing Firms; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1970;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Weber, C. Exercise for older adults with dementia. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. Yuri Drozdov, 91, Top Spy For K.G.B. Who Planted Agents Around the Globe. New York Times 2017, B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary Sciences
AbbreviationVet. Sci.
ISSN (online)2306-7381

Other styles