How to format your references using the Veterinary Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marx, V. Tracking metastasis and tricking cancer. Nature 2013, 494, 133–136.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mangalam, M.; Karve, S.M. ANIMAL COGNITION. Comment on “Number-space mapping in the newborn chick resembles humans’ mental number line.” Science 2015, 348, 1438.
A journal article with 3 authors
Humanes-Valera, D.; Foffani, G.; Aguilar, J. Increased cortical responses to forepaw stimuli immediately after peripheral deafferentation of hindpaw inputs. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 7278.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gemelke, N.; Zhang, X.; Hung, C.-L.; Chin, C. In situ observation of incompressible Mott-insulating domains in ultracold atomic gases. Nature 2009, 460, 995–998.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ekenna, O. Cases in Clinical Infectious Disease Practice: Obtaining a good history from the patient remains the cornerstone of an accurate clinical diagnosis: Lessons learned in many years of clinical practice; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2016; ISBN 9781119044161.
An edited book
Biometeorology for Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change; Ebi, K.L., Burton, I., McGregor, G.R., Eds.; Biometeorology; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2009; Vol. 1; ISBN 9781402089206.
A chapter in an edited book
Agostoni, C. Le basi nutrizionali dell’obesità. In Salute & equilibrio nutrizionale; Giovannini, M., Maffeis, C., Molinari, E., Scaglioni, S., Eds.; Springer: Milano, 2006; pp. 39–58 ISBN 9788847004498.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Watch: Sea Lion Drags Girl Into Water In Richmond, BC (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Savings Opportunity for the United States Mint’s Promotional Mailings; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1990;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moulder, J.C. Comparative analgesic effects of prepulse inhibition and reduced voltage waveforms in defibrillation. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Craig, S.; Pilon, M. Linked to Competitors, Judge Asserts Integrity. New York Times 2013, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary Sciences
AbbreviationVet. Sci.
ISSN (online)2306-7381

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