How to format your references using the Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wodtke, A.M.: Chemistry. Chemistry in a computer: advancing the in silico dream. Science. 312, 64–65 (2006)
A journal article with 2 authors
Keklikoglou, I., De Palma, M.: Cancer: Metastasis risk after anti-macrophage therapy. Nature. 515, 46–47 (2014)
A journal article with 3 authors
Herr, A.B., Ballister, E.R., Bjorkman, P.J.: Insights into IgA-mediated immune responses from the crystal structures of human FcalphaRI and its complex with IgA1-Fc. Nature. 423, 614–620 (2003)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Baba, D., Maita, N., Jee, J.-G., Uchimura, Y., Saitoh, H., Sugasawa, K., Hanaoka, F., Tochio, H., Hiroaki, H., Shirakawa, M.: Crystal structure of thymine DNA glycosylase conjugated to SUMO-1. Nature. 435, 979–982 (2005)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chassaing, R.: Digital Signal Processing and Applications with the C6713 and C6416 DSK. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2004)
An edited book
Fitzgerald, R.C. ed: Pre-Invasive Disease: Pathogenesis and Clinical Management. Springer, New York, NY (2011)
A chapter in an edited book
Defazio, J., Rand, K.: Emergent Design: Bringing the Learner Close to the Experience. In: Stephanidis, C. (ed.) Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Design for All and eInclusion: 6th International Conference, UAHCI 2011, Held as Part of HCI International 2011, Orlando, FL, USA, July 9-14, 2011, Proceedings, Part I. pp. 36–41. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2011)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology.

Blog post
Felton, J.: Scientists Grow Flatworm With Two Heads Instead Of Tail,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Air Force C-17 Embedded Computers. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1994)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jozwiak, A.L.: Social work internship stipend program: A grant proposal, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B., Almosawa, S.: Somali Migrants’ Trek Becomes Scene of Horror, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wodtke 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Keklikoglou and De Palma 2014; Wodtke 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Keklikoglou and De Palma 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Baba et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputational Astrophysics and Cosmology
AbbreviationComput. Astrophys. Cosmol.
ISSN (online)2197-7909

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