How to format your references using the Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mayer-Schönberger, V.: Sociology. Can we reinvent the Internet? Science. 325, 396–397 (2009)
A journal article with 2 authors
Tseng, G.Y., Ellenbogen, J.C.: Nanotechnology. Toward nanocomputers. Science. 294, 1293–1294 (2001)
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, D.-B., Xiao, R., Zeng, A.: Predicting the evolution of spreading on complex networks. Sci. Rep. 4, 6108 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kessel, R., Schmidt, M.W., Ulmer, P., Pettke, T.: Trace element signature of subduction-zone fluids, melts and supercritical liquids at 120-180 km depth. Nature. 437, 724–727 (2005)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kölle, W.: Wasseranalysen - richtig beurteilt. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany (2017)
An edited book
Börger, E., Butler, M., Bowen, J.P., Boca, P. eds: Abstract State Machines, B and Z: First International Conference, ABZ 2008, London, UK, September 16-18, 2008. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2008)
A chapter in an edited book
Ren, F., Zhai, J.: Contemporary Demands for Science and Technology Communication and Popularization. In: Zhai, J. (ed.) Communication and Popularization of Science and Technology in China. pp. 127–158. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A.: New Observation Of Photosynthesis Reveals How Much We Don’t Know,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: National Airspace System: DOT and FAA Actions Will Likely Have a Limited Effect on Reducing Delays during Summer 2008 Travel Season. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2008)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kolasa, A.: Essays on Firm Behavior in Developing Countries, (2014)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky, M.: June’s Most Popular Properties, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mayer-Schönberger 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Mayer-Schönberger 2009; Tseng and Ellenbogen 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tseng and Ellenbogen 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Kessel et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputational Astrophysics and Cosmology
AbbreviationComput. Astrophys. Cosmol.
ISSN (online)2197-7909

Other styles