How to format your references using the Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Middelburg, J.J.: Oceanography. Escape by dilution. Science. 348, 290 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Clardy, J., Walsh, C.: Lessons from natural molecules. Nature. 432, 829–837 (2004)
A journal article with 3 authors
Fasel, R., Parschau, M., Ernst, K.-H.: Amplification of chirality in two-dimensional enantiomorphous lattices. Nature. 439, 449–452 (2006)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bullman, S., Pedamallu, C.S., Sicinska, E., Clancy, T.E., Zhang, X., Cai, D., Neuberg, D., Huang, K., Guevara, F., Nelson, T., Chipashvili, O., Hagan, T., Walker, M., Ramachandran, A., Diosdado, B., Serna, G., Mulet, N., Landolfi, S., Ramon Y Cajal, S., Fasani, R., Aguirre, A.J., Ng, K., Élez, E., Ogino, S., Tabernero, J., Fuchs, C.S., Hahn, W.C., Nuciforo, P., Meyerson, M.: Analysis of Fusobacterium persistence and antibiotic response in colorectal cancer. Science. 358, 1443–1448 (2017)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Norwitz, E.R., Saade, G.R., Miller, H., Davidson, C.M.: Obstetric Clinical Algorithms. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2016)
An edited book
Polychroniadis, E.K., Oral, A.Y., Ozer, M. eds: 2nd International Multidisciplinary Microscopy and Microanalysis Congress: Proceedings of InterM, October 16-19, 2014. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Edge, C.S., Barker, C., Schwiebert, E.: Controlling Network Traffic. In: Barker, C. and Schwiebert, E. (eds.) Beginning Mac OS X Snow Leopard Server: From Solo Install to Enterprise Integration. pp. 149–172. Apress, Berkeley, CA (2010)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: Vaccine Against Alzheimer’s Disease Protein Passes First Stage Of Clinical Trials,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Adult Education Review. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1995)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Svarda, D.: Man 2 Man, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J.C., Jr: Man Who Killed Bus Driver With a Stolen Truck Is Convicted of 4 Charges, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Middelburg 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Clardy and Walsh 2004; Middelburg 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Clardy and Walsh 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Bullman et al. 2017)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputational Astrophysics and Cosmology
AbbreviationComput. Astrophys. Cosmol.
ISSN (online)2197-7909

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