How to format your references using the Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Minteer, B.: Is it right to reverse extinction? Nature. 509, 261 (2014)
A journal article with 2 authors
Madin, J.S., Connolly, S.R.: Ecological consequences of major hydrodynamic disturbances on coral reefs. Nature. 444, 477–480 (2006)
A journal article with 3 authors
Jonsson, G.E., Miljkovic, V., Dmitriev, A.: Nanoplasmon-enabled macroscopic thermal management. Sci. Rep. 4, 5111 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Onishi, Y., Ueha, T., Kawamoto, T., Hara, H., Toda, M., Harada, R., Minoda, M., Kurosaka, M., Akisue, T.: Regulation of mitochondrial proliferation by PGC-1α induces cellular apoptosis in musculoskeletal malignancies. Sci. Rep. 4, 3916 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lombard, M.: SolidWorks® 2011 Parts Bible. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA (2011)
An edited book
Elmakias, D. ed: New Computational Methods in Power System Reliability. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2008)
A chapter in an edited book
Fouque, P.-A., Tibouchi, M.: Estimating the Size of the Image of Deterministic Hash Functions to Elliptic Curves. In: Abdalla, M. and Barreto, P.S.L.M. (eds.) Progress in Cryptology – LATINCRYPT 2010: First International Conference on Cryptology and Information Security in Latin America, Puebla, Mexico, August 8-11, 2010, proceedings. pp. 81–91. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2010)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Scientist Creates Diamonds From Peanut Butter,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: [Comments on Claim for Excess Valuation Charge]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1994)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Acosta, J.: Building bridges: A specialized training program for professionals in school settings to address bullying in LGBTQ youth: A grant proposal, (2013)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon, J., Mather, V.: Mayweather Overcomes McGregor in the 10th Round, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Minteer 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Madin and Connolly 2006; Minteer 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Madin and Connolly 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Onishi et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputational Astrophysics and Cosmology
AbbreviationComput. Astrophys. Cosmol.
ISSN (online)2197-7909

Other styles