How to format your references using the Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kulmala, M.: Atmospheric science. How particles nucleate and grow. Science. 302, 1000–1001 (2003)
A journal article with 2 authors
Gerst, A., Savage, M.K.: Seismic anisotropy beneath Ruapehu volcano: a possible eruption forecasting tool. Science. 306, 1543–1547 (2004)
A journal article with 3 authors
Shin, S.-B., Golovkin, M., Reddy, A.S.N.: A pollen-specific calmodulin-binding protein, NPG1, interacts with putative pectate lyases. Sci. Rep. 4, 5263 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Vigneron, N., Stroobant, V., Chapiro, J., Ooms, A., Degiovanni, G., Morel, S., van der Bruggen, P., Boon, T., Van den Eynde, B.J.: An antigenic peptide produced by peptide splicing in the proteasome. Science. 304, 587–590 (2004)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Straus, S.E., Sackett, D.L.: Mentorship in Academic Medicine. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2013)
An edited book
Norris, S.P. ed: Reading for Evidence and Interpreting Visualizations in Mathematics and Science Education. SensePublishers, Rotterdam (2012)
A chapter in an edited book
Danieli, Y.: Assessing Trauma Across Cultures from a Multigenerational Perspective. In: Wilson, J.P. and Tang, C.S.-K. (eds.) Cross-Cultural Assessment of Psychological Trauma and PTSD. pp. 65–89. Springer US, Boston, MA (2007)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Could T. Rex Really Only See You If You Moved?,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Aviation and the Environment: NextGen and Research and Development Are Keys to Reducing Emissions and Their Impact on Health and Climate. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2008)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Graves, K.A.: An Exploration of Organizational Commitment among Generation X Leaders, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky, L.: A Vote for Small, (2012)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kulmala 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Gerst and Savage 2004; Kulmala 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gerst and Savage 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Vigneron et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputational Astrophysics and Cosmology
AbbreviationComput. Astrophys. Cosmol.
ISSN (online)2197-7909

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