How to format your references using the The Protein Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Protein Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kawaoka Y (2012) H5N1: Flu transmission work is urgent. Nature 482:155
A journal article with 2 authors
Anderson MC, Green C (2001) Suppressing unwanted memories by executive control. Nature 410:366–369
A journal article with 3 authors
Bonasio R, Tu S, Reinberg D (2010) Molecular signals of epigenetic states. Science 330:612–616
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Eilenberger F, Kabakova IV, de Sterke CM, et al (2013) Cavity Optical Pulse Extraction: ultra-short pulse generation as seeded Hawking radiation. Sci Rep 3:2607

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Varrall G (2011) Making Telecoms Work. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Nardi AE, Freire RCR (2016) Panic Disorder: Neurobiological and Treatment Aspects. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
De Carvalho JC, Cardoso LC, Ghiggi V, et al (2014) Microbial Pigments. In: Brar SK, Dhillon GS, Soccol CR (eds) Biotransformation of Waste Biomass into High Value Biochemicals. Springer, New York, NY, pp 73–97

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Protein Journal.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) The World’s First Three-Parent Baby Has Been Born. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) Overhead Costs: Unallowable Costs Charged by Rockwell Corporation, Rocketdyne Division. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chon JY (2012) Coping as a mediator of the relation between teacher perceived stress and teacher-student relationships. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Irving J (2017) It Takes a Commune. New York Times BR9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Protein Journal
AbbreviationJ. Protein Chem.
ISSN (print)1572-3887
ISSN (online)1573-4943
Analytical Chemistry
Organic Chemistry

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