How to format your references using the The Protein Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Protein Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kitayama K (2005) Comment on “Ecosystem properties and forest decline in contrasting long-term chronosequences.” Science 308:633; author reply 633
A journal article with 2 authors
Rogulja D, Young MW (2012) Control of sleep by cyclin A and its regulator. Science 335:1617–1621
A journal article with 3 authors
Mottram DS, Wedzicha BL, Dodson AT (2002) Acrylamide is formed in the Maillard reaction. Nature 419:448–449
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ule J, Stefani G, Mele A, et al (2006) An RNA map predicting Nova-dependent splicing regulation. Nature 444:580–586

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Donham KJ, Thelin A (2016) Agricultural Medicine. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Doerffer P (2011) Unsteady Effects of Shock Wave Induced Separation. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Meanwell NA, Langley DR (2012) Inhibitors of Protein-Protein Interactions in Paramyxovirus Fusion: A Focus on Respiratory Syncytial Virus. In: Wendt MD (ed) Protein-Protein Interactions. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 167–196

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Protein Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E (2016) The San Andreas Fault Is About To Crack – Here’s What Will Happen When It Does. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010) Joint Strike Fighter: Significant Challenges Remain as DOD Restructures Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Khojandi N (2017) Investigating Secondary Infections and their Impact on Host Fitness in the Dictyostelium-Burkholderia Symbiosis System. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wines M (2017) Anger Follows an Accusation of Voter Fraud. New York Times A16

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Protein Journal
AbbreviationJ. Protein Chem.
ISSN (print)1572-3887
ISSN (online)1573-4943
Analytical Chemistry
Organic Chemistry

Other styles