How to format your references using the Veterinary Record Open citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary Record Open. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
WEBB, S. (2007) Science careers. Covering the planet with solar panels. Science (New York, N.Y.) 315, 869.
A journal article with 2 authors
SEELIG, B. and SZOSTAK, J.W. (2007) Selection and evolution of enzymes from a partially randomized non-catalytic scaffold. Nature 448, 828–831.
A journal article with 3 authors
YOO, H.I., BARSOUM, M.W. and EL-RAGHY, T. (2000) Ti3SiC2 has negligible thermopower. Nature 407, 581–582.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
GATESY, J., HAYASHI, C., MOTRIUK, D., WOODS, J. and LEWIS, R. (2001) Extreme diversity, conservation, and convergence of spider silk fibroin sequences. Science (New York, N.Y.) 291, 2603–2605.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
STRAUS, S.E. and SACKETT, D.L. (2013) Mentorship in Academic Medicine. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
PELCAT, M. (2013) Physical Layer Multi-Core Prototyping: A Dataflow-Based Approach for LTE eNodeB. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
GRANCHAROVA, A. and JOHANSEN, T.A. (2012) Explicit NMPC via Approximate mp-NLP. In Explicit Nonlinear Model Predictive Control: Theory and Applications. Ed T.A. Johansen. Springer. pp 87–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary Record Open.

Blog post
ANDREW, E. (2014) Stress Can Alter Your Genome.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE (2005) Air Traffic Control: Preliminary Observations on Commercialized Air Navigation Service Providers. GAO-05-542T. U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
COOK, E.J. (2013) Older Americans Act of 1965, Title III: A policy analysis.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MURPHY, M.J.O. (2015) Remembering the Phonograph. New York Times, C22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Webb 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Webb 2007; Seelig and Szostak 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Seelig and Szostak 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Gatesy and others 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary Record Open
AbbreviationVet. Rec. Open
ISSN (online)2052-6113

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