How to format your references using the Veterinary Record Open citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary Record Open. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
SÁNCHEZ-LAVEGA, A. (2005) How long is the day on Saturn? Science (New York, N.Y.) 307, 1223–1224.
A journal article with 2 authors
HOGAN, D.A. and KOLTER, R. (2002) Pseudomonas-Candida interactions: an ecological role for virulence factors. Science (New York, N.Y.) 296, 2229–2232.
A journal article with 3 authors
EGGENSCHWILER, J.T., ESPINOZA, E. and ANDERSON, K.V. (2001) Rab23 is an essential negative regulator of the mouse Sonic hedgehog signalling pathway. Nature 412, 194–198.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
SCHÖN, J.H., KLOC, C., HWANG, H.Y. and BATLOGG, B. (2001) Josephson junctions with tunable weak links. Science (New York, N.Y.) 292, 252–254.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
WELLS, R. (2004) Global Credit Management. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
ZIEMKE, T., BALKENIUS, C. and HALLAM, J., eds (2012) From Animals to Animats 12: 12th International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior, SAB 2012, Odense, Denmark, August 27-30, 2012. Proceedings. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
OVERBECK, R. and SENDRIER, N. (2009) Code-based cryptography. In Post-Quantum Cryptography. Eds D.J. Bernstein, J. Buchmann and E. Dahmen. Springer. pp 95–145.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary Record Open.

Blog post
ANDREW, E. (2014) Study Provides Insight Into The Recovery Of Consciousness After Anesthesia.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE (1983) GAO ADP Data Lines: Issue No. 2. 122632. U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
ORBINATI, A.G. (2015) Spirituality and learning: An exploration into the understanding of spirituality in adult education.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
SHPIGEL, B. (2017) Finally on Big Stage, Predators Stumble in an Uneven Performance. New York Times, B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sánchez-Lavega 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Hogan and Kolter 2002; Sánchez-Lavega 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hogan and Kolter 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Schön and others 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary Record Open
AbbreviationVet. Rec. Open
ISSN (online)2052-6113

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