How to format your references using the Veterinary Record Open citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary Record Open. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
ABBOTT, A. (2002) Babies’ cancer screens “not needed.” Nature 416, 356.
A journal article with 2 authors
ZAMORE, P.D. and HALEY, B. (2005) Ribo-gnome: the big world of small RNAs. Science (New York, N.Y.) 309, 1519–1524.
A journal article with 3 authors
UMEMOTO, K., WENTZCOVITCH, R.M. and ALLEN, P.B. (2006) Dissociation of MgSiO3 in the cores of gas giants and terrestrial exoplanets. Science (New York, N.Y.) 311, 983–986.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
THON, M., HOSOI, T., YOSHII, M. and OZAWA, K. (2014) Leptin induced GRP78 expression through the PI3K-mTOR pathway in neuronal cells. Scientific reports 4, 7096.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
SILK, R.D. and LINTOTT, J.W. (2011) Managing Foundations and Charitable Trusts. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
BAI, Q. and FUKUTA, N., eds (2011) Advances in Practical Multi-Agent Systems. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
TIMM, C. (2016) Legitimacy and State-Led Economic Policy in Georgia. In Politics and Legitimacy in Post-Soviet Eurasia. Eds M. Brusis, J. Ahrens and M.S. Wessel. Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp 97–120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary Record Open.

Blog post
ANDREW, E. (2014) Stunning New Cassini Image Shows Crescent Saturn And Titan.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE (2016) Cloud Computing: Agencies Need to Incorporate Key Practices to Ensure Effective Performance. GAO-16-325. U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
MARTINEZ, N.M. (2010) The influence of formal and informal support on the quality of life of individuals with a severe mental illness.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
WILLIAMS, J. (2017) A Guide to Writing Guides. New York Times, BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abbott 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott 2002; Zamore and Haley 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zamore and Haley 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Thon and others 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary Record Open
AbbreviationVet. Rec. Open
ISSN (online)2052-6113

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