How to format your references using the Veterinary Record Open citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary Record Open. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
BAKER, M. (2010) Cellular imaging: Taking a long, hard look. Nature 466, 1137–1140.
A journal article with 2 authors
THOMAS, P.C. and ROBINSON, M.S. (2005) Seismic resurfacing by a single impact on the asteroid 433 Eros. Nature 436, 366–369.
A journal article with 3 authors
LALIBERTÉ, E., ZEMUNIK, G. and TURNER, B.L. (2014) Environmental filtering explains variation in plant diversity along resource gradients. Science (New York, N.Y.) 345, 1602–1605.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
FLETCHER, S.P., DUMUR, F., POLLARD, M.M. and FERINGA, B.L. (2005) A reversible, unidirectional molecular rotary motor driven by chemical energy. Science (New York, N.Y.) 310, 80–82.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
WARD, S. (2014) TraderMind. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
GOBELET, C. (2006) Vocational Rehabilitation. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
JAHAN, S., SAKIDIN, H. and NAZAR, R. (2016) Simultaneous Effects of Soret and Dufour on the Unsteady Stagnation Point Flow of Micropolar Fluid Towards a Permeable Stretching Sheet. In Recent Advances in Mathematical Sciences: Selected Papers from ICREM7 2015. Eds A. Kılıçman, H.M. Srivastava, M. Mursaleen and Z. Abdul Majid. Springer. pp 45–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary Record Open.

Blog post
LUNTZ, S. (2015) Coral Reefs Need Cleaning Too.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE (1977) The Legality of the Release of Construction Grant Funds by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare for the University of California’s Proposed School of Dentistry. B-164031(5).43. U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
SALAMAH, H. (2012) Potential barriers to seeking medical care: Does obesity and/or self-esteem result in decreased frequency of necessary medical office visits?

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
FEENEY, K. (2010) Cafeteria Fare, Korean-Style. New York Times, NJ8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Thomas and Robinson 2005; Baker 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thomas and Robinson 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Fletcher and others 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary Record Open
AbbreviationVet. Rec. Open
ISSN (online)2052-6113

Other styles