How to format your references using the Veterinary Record Open citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary Record Open. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
MARX, C.J. (2009) Microbiology. Getting in touch with your friends. Science (New York, N.Y.) 324, 1150–1151.
A journal article with 2 authors
KARSENTI, E. and VERNOS, I. (2001) The mitotic spindle: a self-made machine. Science (New York, N.Y.) 294, 543–547.
A journal article with 3 authors
MORI, T., VALE, R.D. and TOMISHIGE, M. (2007) How kinesin waits between steps. Nature 450, 750–754.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
HOUBAERT, A., ZHANG, C., TIWARI, M., WANG, K., DE MARCOS SERRANO, A., SAVATIN, D.V., URS, M.J., ZHIPONOVA, M.K., GUDESBLAT, G.E., VANHOUTTE, I., EECKHOUT, D., BOEREN, S., KARIMI, M., BETTI, C., JACOBS, T., FENOLL, C., MENA, M., DE VRIES, S., DE JAEGER, G. and RUSSINOVA, E. (2018) POLAR-guided signalling complex assembly and localization drive asymmetric cell division. Nature 563, 574–578.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
THE CHARTERED INSTITUTE OF BUILDING (2008) Code of Practice for Project Management for Construction and Development. Blackwell Publishing.
An edited book
FRIEND, M., GOETHE, N.B. and HARIZANOV, V.S., eds (2007) Induction, Algorithmic Learning Theory, and Philosophy. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
MANEEROJ, S., SAMATTHIYADIKUN, P., CHALERMPORNPONG, W., PANTHUWADEETHORN, S. and TAKASU, A. (2012) Ranked Criteria Profile for Multi-criteria Rating Recommender. In Information Systems, Technology and Management: 6th International Conference, ICISTM 2012, Grenoble, France, March 28-30, 2012. Proceedings. Eds S. Dua, A. Gangopadhyay, P. Thulasiraman, U. Straccia, M. Shepherd and B. Stein. Springer. pp 40–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary Record Open.

Blog post
FANG, J. (2014) Teenager Invents Device That Lets User Communicate With Just Exhales. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE (1984) Costs of Government Funded Trips for Invitees To Attend Space Shuttle Launches at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. NSIAD-84-77. U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
PERLEE-LANGE, D.L. (2010) An introduction to the juvenile dependency court process and the child welfare system: A curriculum for parents.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
ADKINS, M. (2015) Where Elmo’s People Shop. New York Times, MB3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marx 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Karsenti and Vernos 2001; Marx 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Karsenti and Vernos 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Houbaert and others 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary Record Open
AbbreviationVet. Rec. Open
ISSN (online)2052-6113

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