How to format your references using the Veterinary Record Open citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary Record Open. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
KIRSHNER, R. (2010) John Huchra (1948-2010). Nature 468, 174.
A journal article with 2 authors
REGOES, R.R. and BONHOEFFER, S. (2006) Emergence of drug-resistant influenza virus: population dynamical considerations. Science (New York, N.Y.) 312, 389–391.
A journal article with 3 authors
PETTA, J.R., LU, H. and GOSSARD, A.C. (2010) A coherent beam splitter for electronic spin states. Science (New York, N.Y.) 327, 669–672.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
LARD, M., TEN SIETHOFF, L., MÅNSSON, A. and LINKE, H. (2013) Tracking actomyosin at fluorescence check points. Scientific reports 3, 1092.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
TROUT, J. and RIVKIN, S. (2008) Differentiate or Die. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
MAIURI, M.C. and DE STEFANO, D., eds (2016) Autophagy Networks in Inflammation. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
PULE-MEULENBERG, F. (2014) Root-Nodule Bacteria of Legumes Growing in Semi-Arid African Soils and Other Areas of the World. In Bacterial Diversity in Sustainable Agriculture. Ed D.K. Maheshwari. Springer International Publishing. pp 101–130.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary Record Open.

Blog post
FANG, J. (2014) 9,300-Year-Old Frozen Bison Mummy Found in Siberia.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE (1978) Survey of the Harrison County Head Start Program, Gulfport, Mississippi. HRD-78-82. U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
PENA, A.M. (2012) Perceptions of Spanish/English bilingual school psychologists regarding competency in assessment and future training needs.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
BILLARD, M. (2010) What’s Old And New. New York Times, E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kirshner 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Regoes and Bonhoeffer 2006; Kirshner 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Regoes and Bonhoeffer 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Lard and others 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary Record Open
AbbreviationVet. Rec. Open
ISSN (online)2052-6113

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