How to format your references using the Current Applied Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Applied Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Rathi, Event: Turning the tables, Nature. 467 (2010) S22-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
N.G.C. Smith, A. Eyre-Walker, Adaptive protein evolution in Drosophila, Nature. 415 (2002) 1022–1024.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Tanaka, C. Urabe, K. Aihara, Random and targeted interventions for epidemic control in metapopulation models, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5522.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C.K. Savile, J.M. Janey, E.C. Mundorff, J.C. Moore, S. Tam, W.R. Jarvis, J.C. Colbeck, A. Krebber, F.J. Fleitz, J. Brands, P.N. Devine, G.W. Huisman, G.J. Hughes, Biocatalytic asymmetric synthesis of chiral amines from ketones applied to sitagliptin manufacture, Science. 329 (2010) 305–309.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Woolf, Tales of the Barbarians, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2011.
An edited book
D.K. Maheshwari, ed., Bacterial Metabolites in Sustainable Agroecosystem, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
W.Q. Wang, D.T.T. Anh, H.B. Lim, A. Datta, Cloud and the City: Facilitating Flexible Access Control over Data-Streams, in: W. Jonker, M. Petković (Eds.), Secure Data Management: 9th VLDB Workshop, SDM 2012, Istanbul, Turkey, August 27, 2012. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 58–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Applied Physics.

Blog post
J. Davis, Unlike Most Other Arachnids, Majestic Jumping Spiders Can See In Color, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, NASA Property: Improving Management of Government Equipment Provided to Contractors, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.P. Bethany, Business continuity planning: Identifying gaps, patterns and justifications, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.S. Schmidt, M. Mazzetti, M. Apuzzo, Disputing Times Article About Inquiry Into Russia, New York Times. (2017) A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Applied Physics
AbbreviationCurr. Appl. Phys.
ISSN (print)1567-1739
ScopeGeneral Materials Science
General Physics and Astronomy

Other styles