How to format your references using the Current Applied Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Applied Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Gupta, From gadgets to the smart grid, Nature. 526 (2015) S90-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
H. Mabuchi, A.C. Doherty, Cavity quantum electrodynamics: coherence in context, Science. 298 (2002) 1372–1377.
A journal article with 3 authors
W.-L. Jiang, H.-W. He, Z.-J. Yang, The angiotensinogen gene polymorphism is associated with heart failure among Asians, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4207.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L.X. Chen, W.J. Jäger, G. Jennings, D.J. Gosztola, A. Munkholm, J.P. Hessler, Capturing a photoexcited molecular structure through time-domain x-ray absorption fine structure, Science. 292 (2001) 262–264.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K.-Y. Akiba, Organo Main Group Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
K.B. Athreya, Measure Theory and Probability Theory, Springer, New York, NY, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
M.T. Provencher, R.F. Frank, D.J. Gross, P. Golijanin, Glenoid, in: G.I. Bain, E. Itoi, G. Di Giacomo, H. Sugaya (Eds.), Normal and Pathological Anatomy of the Shoulder, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015: pp. 35–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Applied Physics.

Blog post
R. Andrews, Republican Bill Aims To “Terminate” The Department Of Education, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, School Meal Programs: Experiences of the States and Districts That Eliminated Reduced-price Fees, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N.T. Revzin, From selling rags to wearing riches: German Jews’ economic progress in the first half of the nineteenth century, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, Puig’s Popularity Reflects Growing Hispanic Interest, New York Times. (2013) B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Applied Physics
AbbreviationCurr. Appl. Phys.
ISSN (print)1567-1739
ScopeGeneral Materials Science
General Physics and Astronomy

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