How to format your references using the Current Applied Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Applied Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L. Melton, Imaging: the big picture, Nature. 437 (2005) 775–779.
A journal article with 2 authors
E.L. Denchi, T. de Lange, Protection of telomeres through independent control of ATM and ATR by TRF2 and POT1, Nature. 448 (2007) 1068–1071.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.L. Pierce, G.A. Meyer, A.J.T. Jull, Fire-induced erosion and millennial-scale climate change in northern ponderosa pine forests, Nature. 432 (2004) 87–90.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
W. Zhao, Y. Sun, W. Balsam, H. Lu, L. Liu, J. Chen, J. Ji, Hf-Nd isotopic variability in mineral dust from Chinese and Mongolian deserts: implications for sources and dispersal, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5837.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E.R. Norwitz, G.R. Saade, H. Miller, C.M. Davidson, Obstetric Clinical Algorithms, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
N. Desai, A. Liu, M. Winikoff, eds., Principles and Practice of Multi-Agent Systems: 13th International Conference, PRIMA 2010, Kolkata, India, November 12-15, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Bashir, A. Rauber, Improving Retrievability and Recall by Automatic Corpus Partitioning, in: A. Hameurlain, J. Küng, R. Wagner, T. Bach Pedersen, A.M. Tjoa (Eds.), Transactions on Large-Scale Data- and Knowledge-Centered Systems II, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010: pp. 122–140.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Applied Physics.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, Tesla Unveils Solar Roof Tiles In Bid To Make Homes 100% Renewable, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Information Technology: Management Needs to Address Reporting of IRS Investments’ Cost, Schedule, and Scope Information, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
H. Kim, Empathy in the Early Childhood Classroom: Exploring Teachers’ Perceptions, Understanding and Practices, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Billard, Ride Home With It, New York Times. (2010) E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,1].
This sentence cites four references [1,1,1,1].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Applied Physics
AbbreviationCurr. Appl. Phys.
ISSN (print)1567-1739
ScopeGeneral Materials Science
General Physics and Astronomy

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