How to format your references using the Veterinary and Animal Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary and Animal Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Duncan, M. K. (2011). Development. A new focus on RNA in the lens. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6024), 1523–1524.
A journal article with 2 authors
Doumy, G., & DiMauro, L. F. (2008). Chemistry. Interrogating molecules. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5905), 1194–1195.
A journal article with 3 authors
Takano, A., Endo, T., & Yoshihisa, T. (2005). tRNA actively shuttles between the nucleus and cytosol in yeast. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5731), 140–142.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Imasaki, T., Calero, G., Cai, G., Tsai, K.-L., Yamada, K., Cardelli, F., Erdjument-Bromage, H., Tempst, P., Berger, I., Kornberg, G. L., Asturias, F. J., Kornberg, R. D., & Takagi, Y. (2011). Architecture of the Mediator head module. Nature, 475(7355), 240–243.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prazeres, D. M. F. (2011). Plasmid Biopharmaceuticals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Russo, M. V. (Ed.). (2010). Advances in Macromolecules: Perspectives and Applications. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Wijesinghe, L., Siriwardena, P., & Dias, D. (2013). A Wireless Sensor Network for Early Warning of Elephant Intrusions. In F. K. Shaikh, B. S. Chowdhry, H. M. Ammari, M. A. Uqaili, & A. Shah (Eds.), Wireless Sensor Networks for Developing Countries: First International Conference, WSN4DC, Jamshoro, Pakistan, April 24-26, 2013, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 38–50). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary and Animal Science.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, September 27). New Early Warning System Can Predict Tornadoes 30 Minutes Before They Hit The Ground. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Aviation Research: Perspectives on FAA’s Efforts to Develop New Technology (T-RCED-95-193). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Venegas Carro, G. I. (2017). The Slow Movements of Anton Bruckner’s Symphonies: Dialogical Perspectives [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bromwich, J. E., & Stack, L. (2016, June 30). ‘Serial’ Podcast Figure Gets New Trial in a Murder He Says He Didn’t Commit. New York Times, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Duncan, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Doumy & DiMauro, 2008; Duncan, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Doumy & DiMauro, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Takano et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Imasaki et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary and Animal Science
AbbreviationVet. Anim. Sci.
ISSN (print)2451-943X

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