How to format your references using the Veterinary and Animal Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary and Animal Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier, Q. (2012). I was sued for libel under an unjust law. Nature, 487(7406), 141.
A journal article with 2 authors
Morrison, S. J., & Scadden, D. T. (2014). The bone marrow niche for haematopoietic stem cells. Nature, 505(7483), 327–334.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wu, J., Zhang, C., & Qiao, H. (2014). The significance of p40 expression in sclerosing hemangioma of lung. Scientific Reports, 4, 6102.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tanaka, M., Münsterberg, A., Anderson, W. G., Prescott, A. R., Hazon, N., & Tickle, C. (2002). Fin development in a cartilaginous fish and the origin of vertebrate limbs. Nature, 416(6880), 527–531.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gage, L. J. (2008). Hand-Rearing Wild and Domestic Mammals. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Pedersen, T., Bals, L., Ørberg Jensen, P. D., & Larsen, M. M. (Eds.). (2013). The Offshoring Challenge: Strategic Design and Innovation for Tomorrow’s Organization. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Leung, C. K.-S., & MacKinnon, R. K. (2015). Balancing Tree Size and Accuracy in Fast Mining of Uncertain Frequent Patterns. In S. Madria & T. Hara (Eds.), Big Data Analytics and Knowledge Discovery: 17th International Conference, DaWaK 2015, Valencia, Spain, September 1-4, 2015, Proceedings (pp. 57–69). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary and Animal Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, December 8). Two-Faced Cat Dies Aged 15. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Vocational Education: Changes at High School Level After Amendments to Perkins Act (No. HEHS-95-144). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schoettler, M. R. (2017). A Publish-Subscribe Framework for Embedded Systems: Simplifying the Development Process (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Clooney, G., Prendergast, J., & Kumar, A. (2015, February 25). Sudan’s Rape of Darfur. New York Times, p. A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schiermeier, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Morrison & Scadden, 2014; Schiermeier, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Morrison & Scadden, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Wu, Zhang, & Qiao, 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Tanaka et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary and Animal Science
AbbreviationVet. Anim. Sci.
ISSN (print)2451-943X

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