How to format your references using the Veterinary and Animal Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary and Animal Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalton, R. (2001). Arson hampers conservation work. Nature, 411(6837), 509.
A journal article with 2 authors
Beasley, A. J., & Schreier, E. J. (2012). Astronomy: The United States must rejoin the SKA. Nature, 489(7416), 363.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wittkopp, P. J., Haerum, B. K., & Clark, A. G. (2004). Evolutionary changes in cis and trans gene regulation. Nature, 430(6995), 85–88.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Got, J.-L., Monteiller, V., Monteux, J., Hassani, R., & Okubo, P. (2008). Deformation and rupture of the oceanic crust may control growth of Hawaiian volcanoes. Nature, 451(7177), 453–456.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anandharamakrishnan, C., & Ishwarya, S. P. (2015). Spray Drying Techniques for Food Ingredient Encapsulation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Zhang, J. Y. (2015). Tensegrity Structures: Form, Stability, and Symmetry (M. Ohsaki, Ed.; Vol. 6). Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Villar Piqué, G., & Alarcón, E. (2011). Buck Converter Design Space Exploration with Detailed Component Models. In E. Alarcón (Ed.), CMOS Integrated Switching Power Converters: A Structured Design Approach (pp. 121–132). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary and Animal Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 24). Scientists Discover Secret To Butterfly’s Invisible Wings. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). Information Technology Reform: Billions of Dollars in Savings Have Been Realized, but Agencies Need to Complete Reinvestment Plans (GAO-15-617). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Muehlhauser, C. (2017). Perceived Criticism, Self-Criticism, and Disordered Eating Patterns in College Students [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S. (2015, November 22). Making All the World Their Stage. New York Times, WE9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dalton, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Beasley & Schreier, 2012; Dalton, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Beasley & Schreier, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Wittkopp et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Got et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary and Animal Science
AbbreviationVet. Anim. Sci.
ISSN (print)2451-943X

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