How to format your references using the Veterinary and Animal Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary and Animal Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershenfeld, N. (2001). A quantum conversation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5537), 2035–2037.
A journal article with 2 authors
Adlam, B., & Nowak, M. A. (2014). Universality of fixation probabilities in randomly structured populations. Scientific Reports, 4, 6692.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gerstein, M., Lan, N., & Jansen, R. (2002). Proteomics. Integrating interactomes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5553), 284–287.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lesser, M. P., Mazel, C. H., Gorbunov, M. Y., & Falkowski, P. G. (2004). Discovery of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in corals. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5686), 997–1000.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ibrahim, M. A. (2011). Disturbance Analysis for Power Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Chen, X., Wang, Q., & Luo, Y. C. (Eds.). (2014). Reading Development and Difficulties in Monolingual and Bilingual Chinese Children (Vol. 8). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Glouche, Y., Gautier, T., Guernic, P. L., & Talpin, J.-P. (2010). A Module Language for Typing SIGNAL Programs by Contracts. In S. K. Shukla & J.-P. Talpin (Eds.), Synthesis of Embedded Software: Frameworks and Methodologies for Correctness by Construction (pp. 147–171). Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary and Animal Science.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, May 12). Report Reveals 20% Of All Plants At Risk Of Extinction. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). No Child Left Behind Act: Education Should Clarify Guidance and Address Potential Compliance Issues for Schools in Corrective Action and Restructuring Status (GAO-07-1035). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parhad, A. (2015). Energy scavenging using piezoelectric sensors to power in pavement intelligent vehicle detection systems [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhill, K. M. (2006, February 17). Don’t Dumb Down the Army. New York Times, A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gershenfeld, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Adlam & Nowak, 2014; Gershenfeld, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Adlam & Nowak, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Gerstein et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lesser et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary and Animal Science
AbbreviationVet. Anim. Sci.
ISSN (print)2451-943X

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