How to format your references using the Veterinary and Animal Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary and Animal Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bernhard, J. M. (2003). Potential symbionts in bathyal foraminifera. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5608), 861.
A journal article with 2 authors
Göpfert, M. C., & Robert, D. (2001). Biomechanics. Turning the key on Drosophila audition. Nature, 411(6840), 908.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ungless, M. A., Magill, P. J., & Bolam, J. P. (2004). Uniform inhibition of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area by aversive stimuli. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5666), 2040–2042.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bashir, T., Dorrello, N. V., Amador, V., Guardavaccaro, D., & Pagano, M. (2004). Control of the SCF(Skp2-Cks1) ubiquitin ligase by the APC/C(Cdh1) ubiquitin ligase. Nature, 428(6979), 190–193.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Raheja, D. G., & Allocco, M. (2006). Assurance Technologies Principles and Practices. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Shamrukh, M. (Ed.). (2011). Riverbank Filtration for Water Security in Desert Countries. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Rudolph-Cleff, A. (2016). Urban Interplay. In F. Wang & M. Prominski (Eds.), Urbanization and Locality: Strengthening Identity and Sustainability by Site-Specific Planning and Design (pp. 75–94). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary and Animal Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, February 13). A ‘Bionic Leaf’ Turns Solar Energy Into Chemicals And Fuels. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Tax Systems Modernization: Concerns Over Security and Privacy Elements of the Systems Architecture (IMTEC-92-63). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Luo, S. X. (2009). Theoretical models of olfactory discrimination in Drosophila [Doctoral dissertation]. Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. (2017, January 31). President’s First Days Keep Networks’ Ratings Strong. New York Times, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bernhard, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Bernhard, 2003; Göpfert & Robert, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Göpfert & Robert, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Ungless et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Bashir et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary and Animal Science
AbbreviationVet. Anim. Sci.
ISSN (print)2451-943X

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