How to format your references using the Veterinary and Animal Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary and Animal Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Agarwal, V. K. (2000). “Diamond ceiling” for asian americans. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5499), 2075a.
A journal article with 2 authors
Olson, J. W., & Maier, R. J. (2002). Molecular hydrogen as an energy source for Helicobacter pylori. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5599), 1788–1790.
A journal article with 3 authors
Giles, S., Friedman, M., & Brazeau, M. D. (2015). Osteichthyan-like cranial conditions in an Early Devonian stem gnathostome. Nature, 520(7545), 82–85.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Dang, W., Steffen, K. K., Perry, R., Dorsey, J. A., Johnson, F. B., Shilatifard, A., Kaeberlein, M., Kennedy, B. K., & Berger, S. L. (2009). Histone H4 lysine 16 acetylation regulates cellular lifespan. Nature, 459(7248), 802–807.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Caltagirone, J.-P. (2015). Discrete Mechanics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Purkayastha, J. (Ed.). (2016). Bioprospecting of Indigenous Bioresources of North-East India. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
García-Sastre, A. (2005). Interferon Antagonists of Influenza Viruses. In P. Palese (Ed.), Modulation of Host Gene Expression and Innate Immunity by Viruses (pp. 95–114). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary and Animal Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 15). Stranded Great White Shark In Cape Cod Rescued By Beachgoers. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Vulnerabilities of Telecommunications Systems to Unauthorized Use (LCD-77-102). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thomas, E. M. (2016). Perceptions of educational leaders’ efficacy and leadership capacity upon preliminary administrative credential completion at California State University, Long Beach [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S. (2009, April 12). The Fading of the Green. New York Times, CY1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Agarwal, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Agarwal, 2000; Olson & Maier, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Olson & Maier, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Giles et al., 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Dang et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary and Animal Science
AbbreviationVet. Anim. Sci.
ISSN (print)2451-943X

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