How to format your references using the Palaeodiversity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaeodiversity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kohane, I. S. (2015): HEALTH CARE POLICY. Ten things we have to do to achieve precision medicine. – Science (New York, N.Y.), 349 (6243): 37–38.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bhattacharya, K., & James, R. D. (2005): Applied physics. The material is the machine. – Science (New York, N.Y.), 307 (5706): 53–54.
A journal article with 3 authors
Loewe, L., Textor, V., & Scherer, S. (2003): High deleterious genomic mutation rate in stationary phase of Escherichia coli. – Science (New York, N.Y.), 302 (5650): 1558–1560.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Aravin, A. A., Sachidanandam, R., Girard, A., Fejes-Toth, K., & Hannon, G. J. (2007): Developmentally regulated piRNA clusters implicate MILI in transposon control. – Science (New York, N.Y.), 316 (5825): 744–747.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kolb, R. W. (2011): Sovereign Debt. Hoboken, NJ (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.).
An edited book
Menéndez, A. J., & Eriksen, E. O. (eds.) (2006): Arguing Fundamental Rights (Vol. 77). VII, 230 p pp.; Dordrecht (Springer Netherlands).
A chapter in an edited book
Hu, H., & Gong, G. (2008): A Study on the Pseudorandom Properties of Sequences Generated Via the Additive Order. – In: S. W. Golomb, M. G. Parker, A. Pott, & A. Winterhof (eds.), Sequences and Their Applications - SETA 2008: 5th International Conference Lexington, KY, USA, September 14-18, 2008 Proceedings (pp. 51–59). Berlin, Heidelberg (Springer).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaeodiversity.

Blog post
Carpineti, C. (2017, June 6): Video: Flat-Earthers Present Their ‘Evidence’ For Why The Earth Is Flat. . Retrieved 30 October 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991): Medical Residents: Options Exist to Make Student Loan Payments Manageable (No. HRD-92-21). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hubbard, W. L. (2009): The perceptions of public school administrators toward technology effectiveness and adequacy in curriculum and instruction in the Golden Triangle Public Schools of Mississippi (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2007, June 3): Fervently French, Pétanque Draws All Ages. – New York Times, p. WE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kohane 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bhattacharya & James 2005; Kohane 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bhattacharya & James 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Aravin et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaeodiversity
ISSN (print)1867-6294
ISSN (online)1869-4802

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