How to format your references using the Palaeodiversity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaeodiversity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dillon, N. (2003): Gene autonomy: positions, please. – Nature, 425 (6957): 457.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fugmann, S. D., & Schatz, D. G. (2002): Immunology. One AID to unite them all. – Science (New York, N.Y.), 295 (5558): 1244–1245.
A journal article with 3 authors
Agarwala, S., Sanders, T. A., & Ragsdale, C. W. (2001): Sonic hedgehog control of size and shape in midbrain pattern formation. – Science (New York, N.Y.), 291 (5511): 2147–2150.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Evrard, O., Chartin, C., Onda, Y., Patin, J., Lepage, H., Lefèvre, I., … Bonté, P. (2013): Evolution of radioactive dose rates in fresh sediment deposits along coastal rivers draining Fukushima contamination plume. – Scientific Reports, 3 : 3079.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sagolla, D. (2009): 140 Characters. Hoboken, NJ (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.).
An edited book
Fortunato, S., Mangioni, G., Menezes, R., & Nicosia, V. (eds.) (2009): Complex Networks: Results of the 2009 International Workshop on Complex Networks (CompleNet 2009) (Vol. 207). XVII, 225 p pp.; Berlin, Heidelberg (Springer).
A chapter in an edited book
Aadland, K. (2016): The Performative Relation Between Storyteller, Story, and Children. – In: O. Erstad, K. Kumpulainen, Å. Mäkitalo, K. C. Schrøder, P. Pruulmann-Vengerfeldt, & T. Jóhannsdóttir (eds.), Learning across Contexts in the Knowledge Society (pp. 61–84). Rotterdam (SensePublishers).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaeodiversity.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013, November 15): Mid-Sized Planetary Body in Kuiper Belt Could Float In Water. . Retrieved 30 October 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005): Information Technology: Responses to Subcommittee Post-Hearing Questions Regarding the FBI’s Management Practices and Acquisition of a New Investigative Case Management System (No. GAO-06-302R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salifu, A. (2008): Names that prick: Royal praise names in Dagbon, northern Ghana (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2004, June 9): World Briefing | Middle East: Qatar: Death Sought For Russians. – New York Times, p. A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dillon 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Dillon 2003; Fugmann & Schatz 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fugmann & Schatz 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Evrard et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaeodiversity
ISSN (print)1867-6294
ISSN (online)1869-4802

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