How to format your references using the Palaeodiversity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaeodiversity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Doherty, R. (2007): Retrospective. Robert W. Cahn (1924-2007) and David Turnbull (1915-2007). – Science (New York, N.Y.), 317 (5834): 56–57.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fox, B. W., & Tibbetts, R. S. (2015): Neurodegeneration: Problems at the nuclear pore. – Nature, 525 (7567): 36–37.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huffard, C. L., Boneka, F., & Full, R. J. (2005): Underwater bipedal locomotion by octopuses in disguise. – Science (New York, N.Y.), 307 (5717): 1927.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hendy, E. J., Gagan, M. K., Alibert, C. A., McCulloch, M. T., Lough, J. M., & Isdale, P. J. (2002): Abrupt decrease in tropical Pacific sea surface salinity at end of Little Ice Age. – Science (New York, N.Y.), 295 (5559): 1511–1514.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rossner, W., & Graubner, C.-A. (2012): Spannbetonbauwerke. Weinheim, Germany (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA).
An edited book
Abate, M. (2010): Holomorphic Dynamical Systems: Cetraro, Italy, July 7-12, 2008 (E. Bedford, M. Brunella, T.-C. Dinh, D. Schleicher, N. Sibony, G. Gentili, … G. Patrizio, Eds.) (Vol. 1998). XII, 348 p pp.; Berlin, Heidelberg (Springer).
A chapter in an edited book
Cheng, J., & Lu, H. (2014): Local Structure Preserving Based Subspace Analysis Methods and Applications. – In: Y.-W. Chen & L. C. Jain (eds.), Subspace Methods for Pattern Recognition in Intelligent Environment (pp. 105–121). Berlin, Heidelberg (Springer).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaeodiversity.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2016, May 16): Supplements Are An Expensive And Potentially Toxic Lucky Dip. . Retrieved 30 October 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1983): President’s Fifth Special Message for FY 1983 (No. OGC-83-7). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zitko, J. A. (2012): Effects of Random Cross-Sectioned Distributions, Fiber Misalignment and Interphases in Three-Dimensional Composite Models on Transverse Shear Modulus (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2016, September 2): Latin, Country, Reggaeton: Great Range in Mets’ Playlists. – New York Times, p. SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Doherty 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Doherty 2007; Fox & Tibbetts 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fox & Tibbetts 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Hendy et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaeodiversity
ISSN (print)1867-6294
ISSN (online)1869-4802

Other styles