How to format your references using the Palaeodiversity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaeodiversity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2009): Salaries in the balance. – Nature, 457 (7230): 750–751.
A journal article with 2 authors
Krupovic, M., & Koonin, E. V. (2014): Evolution of eukaryotic single-stranded DNA viruses of the Bidnaviridae family from genes of four other groups of widely different viruses. – Scientific Reports, 4 : 5347.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gitlin, A. D., Shulman, Z., & Nussenzweig, M. C. (2014): Clonal selection in the germinal centre by regulated proliferation and hypermutation. – Nature, 509 (7502): 637–640.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ito, K., Bernardi, R., Morotti, A., Matsuoka, S., Saglio, G., Ikeda, Y., … Pandolfi, P. P. (2008): PML targeting eradicates quiescent leukaemia-initiating cells. – Nature, 453 (7198): 1072–1078.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zneimer, S. M. (2014): Cytogenetic Abnormalities. Hoboken (John Wiley & Sons, Inc).
An edited book
Dulli, S. (2009): Data mining: Metodi e strategie (S. Furini & E. Peron, Eds.). IX, 182 pagg pp.; Milano (Springer).
A chapter in an edited book
Genovese, E., Leonardi, A., Callegari, L., Angeretti, M. G., Albrizio, M., Spanò, E., & Fugazzola, C. (2011): Major and Minor Pediatric Traumatic Musculotendinous Injuries. – In: F. Martino, C. Defilippi, & R. Caudana (eds.), Imaging of Pediatric Bone and Joint Trauma (pp. 69–81). Milano (Springer).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaeodiversity.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017, March 20): Shocking Footage Shows A Digger Crushing A Tiger To Death. . Retrieved 30 October 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000): Tax Systems Modernization: Results of Review of IRS’ March 7, 2000, Expenditure Plan (No. AIMD-00-175). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Luna, S. C. (2010): An integrated treatment program for individuals with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McGOVERN, G. (2012, October 21): George McGovern on Op-Ed. – New York Times, p. 0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Krupovic & Koonin 2014; Smaglik 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Krupovic & Koonin 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Ito et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaeodiversity
ISSN (print)1867-6294
ISSN (online)1869-4802

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