How to format your references using the Palaeodiversity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaeodiversity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schnittman, J. D. (2013): Astronomy. The curious behavior of the milky way’s central black hole. – Science (New York, N.Y.), 341 (6149): 964–965.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sontheimer, E. J., & Carthew, R. W. (2004): Molecular biology. Argonaute journeys into the heart of RISC. – Science (New York, N.Y.), 305 (5689): 1409–1410.
A journal article with 3 authors
Koren, I., Dagan, G., & Altaratz, O. (2014): From aerosol-limited to invigoration of warm convective clouds. – Science (New York, N.Y.), 344 (6188): 1143–1146.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Arias, C. F., Catalán, P., Manrubia, S., & Cuesta, J. A. (2014): toyLIFE: a computational framework to study the multi-level organisation of the genotype-phenotype map. – Scientific Reports, 4 : 7549.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ziegler, M. (2012): Geotechnische Nachweise nach EC 7 und DIN 1054. Weinheim, Germany (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA).
An edited book
Doran, B. J. (2012): Putting Fear of Crime on the Map: Investigating Perceptions of Crime Using Geographic Information Systems (M. B. Burgess, Ed.). XVIII, 286 p pp.; New York, NY (Springer).
A chapter in an edited book
Senkerik, R., Zelinka, I., Davendra, D., & Oplatkova, Z. (2010): Evolutionary Design of Chaos Control in 1D. – In: I. Zelinka, S. Celikovsky, H. Richter, & G. Chen (eds.), Evolutionary Algorithms and Chaotic Systems (pp. 165–190). Berlin, Heidelberg (Springer).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaeodiversity.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, April 6): Feral Girl Found With Monkeys In A Forest In India. . Retrieved 30 October 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991): Aircraft Maintenance: Additional FAA Oversight Needed of Aging Aircraft Repairs (Vol. II) (No. RCED-91-91B). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Novak, T. S. (2017): Vital Signs of U.S. Osteopathic Medical Residency Programs Pivoting to Single Accreditation Standards (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2016, March 16): The New Bork Battle. – New York Times, p. A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schnittman 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Schnittman 2013; Sontheimer & Carthew 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sontheimer & Carthew 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Arias et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaeodiversity
ISSN (print)1867-6294
ISSN (online)1869-4802

Other styles