How to format your references using the Palaeodiversity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaeodiversity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pälike, H. (2013): Geochemistry. Impact and extinction. – Science (New York, N.Y.), 339 (6120): 655–656.
A journal article with 2 authors
MacArthur, B. D., & Oreffo, R. O. C. (2005): Bridging the gap. – Nature, 433 (7021): 19.
A journal article with 3 authors
Karner, M. B., DeLong, E. F., & Karl, D. M. (2001): Archaeal dominance in the mesopelagic zone of the Pacific Ocean. – Nature, 409 (6819): 507–510.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bersten, M. C., Folatelli, G., García, F., Van Dyk, S. D., Benvenuto, O. G., Orellana, M., … Smith, N. (2018): A surge of light at the birth of a supernova. – Nature, 554 (7693): 497–499.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McMillan, E. J. (2010): Not-for-Profit Budgeting and Financial Management. Hoboken, NJ (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.).
An edited book
Clark, B. W. (ed.) (2009): Proceedings of the 18th International Meshing Roundtable. XIV, 654 p pp.; Berlin, Heidelberg (Springer).
A chapter in an edited book
Gladkov, L. A., Gladkova, N. V., & Leiba, S. N. (2015): Electronic Computing Equipment Schemes Elements Placement Based on Hybrid Intelligence Approach. – In: R. Silhavy, R. Senkerik, Z. K. Oplatkova, Z. Prokopova, & P. Silhavy (eds.), Intelligent Systems in Cybernetics and Automation Theory: Proceedings of the 4th Computer Science On-line Conference 2015 (CSOC2015), Vol 2: Intelligent Systems in Cybernetics and Automation Theory (pp. 35–44). Cham (Springer International Publishing).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaeodiversity.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, October 13): Three-Inch Leech Lived Up Backpacker’s Nose For A Month. . Retrieved 30 October 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997): Small Business Administration: Better Planning and Controls Needed for Information Systems (No. AIMD-97-94). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gnoinska, M. K. (2010): Poland and the Cold War in East and Southeast Asia, 1949-1965 (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky, M. (2017, October 12): International Rents Per Square Foot. – New York Times, p. RE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pälike 2013).
This sentence cites two references (MacArthur & Oreffo 2005; Pälike 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (MacArthur & Oreffo 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Bersten et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaeodiversity
ISSN (print)1867-6294
ISSN (online)1869-4802

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