How to format your references using the American Journal of Translational Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Translational Research (AJTR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler A. Archaeology. Preserving history, one hill at a time. Science 2011; 334:1623.
A journal article with 2 authors
Harris IS, Brugge JS. Cancer: The enemy of my enemy is my friend. Nature 2015; 527:170–171.
A journal article with 3 authors
Berson DM, Dunn FA, Takao M. Phototransduction by retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock. Science 2002; 295:1070–1073.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gonçalves G, Vila M, Bdikin I, de Andrés A, Emami N, Ferreira RAS, Carlos LD, Grácio J, Marques PAAP. Breakdown into nanoscale of graphene oxide: confined hot spot atomic reduction and fragmentation. Sci Rep 2014; 4:6735.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Woods DR. Successful Trouble Shooting for Process Engineers. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Wu W, Yu H-S (Eds.). Modern Trends in Geomechanics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Kobayashi Y, Shiotani T. Computerized AE Tomography. In: Ohtsu M, editor. Innovative AE and NDT Techniques for On-Site Measurement of Concrete and Masonry Structures: State-of-the-Art Report of the RILEM Technical Committee 239-MCM. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2016. p. 47–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Translational Research.

Blog post
Luntz S. Total Solar Eclipse To Darken Skies Above Europe March 20th. IFLScience 2015; .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aircraft Noise: Implementation of FAA’s Expanded East Coast Plan. 1988; .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mendoza-Williams J. Road to success: The experiences of academically successful graduation-bound African American males. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bowley G, Ember S. Will Her Story Convict Cosby? New York Times 2017; C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Translational Research
ISSN (online)1943-8141

Other styles