How to format your references using the Vaccines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vaccines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Theissen, G. Secret Life of Genes. Nature 2002, 415, 741.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huxley, A.; Green, A.G. Physics. Electrons Acquire a Split Personality in Bismuth. Science 2007, 317, 1694–1695.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huffard, C.L.; Boneka, F.; Full, R.J. Underwater Bipedal Locomotion by Octopuses in Disguise. Science 2005, 307, 1927.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ebert, A.D.; Yu, J.; Rose, F.F., Jr; Mattis, V.B.; Lorson, C.L.; Thomson, J.A.; Svendsen, C.N. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from a Spinal Muscular Atrophy Patient. Nature 2009, 457, 277–280.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hackshaw, A. How to Write a Grant Application; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2010; ISBN 9781444329650.
An edited book
Multi-Hazard Approaches to Civil Infrastructure Engineering; Gardoni, P., LaFave, J.M., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319297118.
A chapter in an edited book
Hafford, M.L.; Scott, D.J. Retraction Systems in Single-Incision Laparoscopic Surgery and NOTES. In Scar-Less Surgery: NOTES, Transumbilical, and Others; Rane, A., Cadeddu, J.A., Desai, M.M., Gill, I.S., Eds.; Springer: London, 2013; pp. 49–70 ISBN 9781848003590.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vaccines.

Blog post
Andrew, E. US Supreme Court Upholds Use of Controversial Lethal Injection Drug Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office No Child Left Behind Act: States Face Challenges Measuring Academic Growth; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2006;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pugh, A.N. Adoption Is an Option: A Personal Narrative. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K. World Briefing | Europe: Ukraine: Panel To Study Reforms. New York Times 2002, A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVaccines
AbbreviationVaccines (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-393X
Infectious Diseases
Pharmacology (medical)
Drug Discovery

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