How to format your references using the Vaccines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vaccines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. Eastern Promises. Nature 2003, 422, 239.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cassidy, D.B.; Mills, A.P., Jr The Production of Molecular Positronium. Nature 2007, 449, 195–197.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mendoza, M.; Succi, S.; Herrmann, H.J. Flow through Randomly Curved Manifolds. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3106.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gordon, J.M.; Feuermann, D.; Huleihil, M.; Mizrahi, S.; Shaco-Levy, R. Fibre Optics: Surgery by Sunlight on Live Animals. Nature 2003, 424, 510.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Knopf, F.C. Modeling, Analysis and Optimization of Process and Energy Systems; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118121160.
An edited book
Advances in Cryptology – ASIACRYPT 2012: 18th International Conference on the Theory and Application of Cryptology and Information Security, Beijing, China, December 2-6, 2012. Proceedings; Wang, X., Sako, K., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; Vol. 7658; ISBN 9783642349607.
A chapter in an edited book
Guo-hao, D.; Hua, L.; Jian-Xia, L.; Jin-Zhi, F. Parallel Solver for Hypersonic Flow Based on Block-Structured Grid. In Parallel Computational Fluid Dynamics: 25th International Conference, ParCFD 2013, Changsha, China, May 20-24, 2013. Revised Selected Papers; Li, K., Xiao, Z., Wang, Y., Du, J., Li, K., Eds.; Communications in Computer and Information Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014; pp. 37–53 ISBN 9783642539619.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vaccines.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Newly Discovered 17th Century Document Described Now-Extinct Mauritian Wildlife (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Early Childhood Programs: Many Poor Children and Strained Resources Challenge Head Start; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1994;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Detweiler, K.R. Exploring Discursive Interaction, Habitus, and Dynamic Co-Emergence Among an Agency Leader and Congressional Oversight Committee: A Case Study of Languaging in Practice. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. Remembering Waitz, a Champion and Companion. New York Times 2011, B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVaccines
AbbreviationVaccines (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-393X
Infectious Diseases
Pharmacology (medical)
Drug Discovery

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