How to format your references using the Vaccines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vaccines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gutiérrez, R.A. Systems Biology for Enhanced Plant Nitrogen Nutrition. Science 2012, 336, 1673–1675.
A journal article with 2 authors
Walter, P.; Ron, D. The Unfolded Protein Response: From Stress Pathway to Homeostatic Regulation. Science 2011, 334, 1081–1086.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bugreev, D.V.; Mazina, O.M.; Mazin, A.V. Rad54 Protein Promotes Branch Migration of Holliday Junctions. Nature 2006, 442, 590–593.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lei, Y.; Mehmood, F.; Lee, S.; Greeley, J.; Lee, B.; Seifert, S.; Winans, R.E.; Elam, J.W.; Meyer, R.J.; Redfern, P.C.; et al. Increased Silver Activity for Direct Propylene Epoxidation via Subnanometer Size Effects. Science 2010, 328, 224–228.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Berthou, P.; Baudoin, C.; Gayraud, T.; Gineste, M. Satellite and Terrestrial Hybrid Networks; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2015; ISBN 9781118625347.
An edited book
Ulivi, P. Robotic Exploration of the Solar System: Part 3: Wows and Woes, 1997-2003; Harland, D.M., Ed.; Springer Praxis Books; Praxis: New York, NY, 2012; ISBN 9780387096278.
A chapter in an edited book
Grambow, G.; Oberhauser, R.; Reichert, M. Enabling Automatic Process-Aware Collaboration Support in Software Engineering Projects. In Software and Data Technologies: 6th International Conference, ICSOFT 2011, Seville, Spain, July 18-21, 2011. Revised Selected Papers; Escalona, M.J., Cordeiro, J., Shishkov, B., Eds.; Communications in Computer and Information Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 73–88 ISBN 9783642361760.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vaccines.

Blog post
Fang, J. Russian Man Will Become Subject Of First Human Head Transplant Ever Performed Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites: Technical Problems, Cost Increases, and Schedule Delays Trigger Need for Difficult Trade-off Decisions; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2005;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dang, H. The Cummulative Incidence Estimate versus the Kaplan Meier Method in Medical Research. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. A Feast for Actors, With One in the Kitchen. New York Times 2017, C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVaccines
AbbreviationVaccines (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-393X
Infectious Diseases
Pharmacology (medical)
Drug Discovery

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