How to format your references using the Vaccines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vaccines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Burtis, K.C. Development. Doublesex in the middle. Science 2002, 297, 1135–1136.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hurtley, S.M.; Pennisi, E. Journey to the center of the cell. Introduction to special issue. Science 2007, 318, 1399.
A journal article with 3 authors
McGaha, T.L.; Sorrentino, B.; Ravetch, J.V. Restoration of tolerance in lupus by targeted inhibitory receptor expression. Science 2005, 307, 590–593.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Armond, J.W.; Saha, K.; Rana, A.A.; Oates, C.J.; Jaenisch, R.; Nicodemi, M.; Mukherjee, S. A stochastic model dissects cell states in biological transition processes. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 3692.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lieberman, N.P. Troubleshooting Vacuum Systems; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2012; ISBN 9781118570968.
An edited book
Military Logistics: Research Advances and Future Trends; Zeimpekis, V., Kaimakamis, G., Daras, N.J., Eds.; Operations Research/Computer Science Interfaces Series; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; Vol. 56; ISBN 9783319120744.
A chapter in an edited book
Maalel, A.; Mejri, L.; Hadj-Mabrouk, H.; Ben Ghézala, H. Towards a Decision Support System for Security Analysis. In Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management in Mediterranean Countries: First International Conference, ISCRAM-med 2014, Toulouse, France, October 15-17, 2014. Proceedings; Hanachi, C., Bénaben, F., Charoy, F., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; pp. 46–56 ISBN 9783319118178.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vaccines.

Blog post
Fang, J. Young Mice Exposed to Cat Pee Don’t Escape Later On Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Tax Systems Modernization: Progress in Achieving IRS’ Business Vision; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1996;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gowetski, D.B. Manipulation of DNA topology using an artificial DNA-looping protein. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park: College Park, MD, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. Van Susteren Is Let Go From MSNBC. New York Times 2017, B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVaccines
AbbreviationVaccines (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-393X
Infectious Diseases
Pharmacology (medical)
Drug Discovery

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