How to format your references using the Vaccines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vaccines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bradford, M.A. Ecology: Good dirt with good friends. Nature 2014, 505, 486–487.
A journal article with 2 authors
Starr, M.B.; Wang, X. Fundamental analysis of piezocatalysis process on the surfaces of strained piezoelectric materials. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2160.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wagner, P.J.; Kosnik, M.A.; Lidgard, S. Abundance distributions imply elevated complexity of post-Paleozoic marine ecosystems. Science 2006, 314, 1289–1292.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhou, J.; Gao, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Luo, H.; Cao, C.; Chen, Z.; Dai, L.; Liu, X. VO₂ thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3029.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stephans, R.A. System Safety for the 21 st Century; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2004; ISBN 9780471662549.
An edited book
Research into Practice – Reality and Gaps: 6th International Conference on the Quality of Software Architectures, QoSA 2010, Prague, Czech Republic, June 23 - 25, 2010. Proceedings; Heineman, G.T., Kofron, J., Plasil, F., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; Vol. 6093; ISBN 9783642138201.
A chapter in an edited book
Balasch, J.; Gierlichs, B.; Grosso, V.; Reparaz, O.; Standaert, F.-X. On the Cost of Lazy Engineering for Masked Software Implementations. In Smart Card Research and Advanced Applications: 13th International Conference, CARDIS 2014, Paris, France, November 5-7, 2014. Revised Selected Papers; Joye, M., Moradi, A., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 64–81 ISBN 9783319167626.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vaccines.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Eight-Year-Old Dies Of Polio In Laos Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office DOD Business Systems Modernization: Limited Progress in Development of Business Enterprise Architecture and Oversight of Information Technology Investments; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2004;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mueller, C. A Multidimensional Perspective of Faculty Mentoring and Job Satisfaction during the First Year of Teaching at Lindenwood University. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University: St. Charles, MO, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. Poetic Spark of a Combustible Iraq Veteran. New York Times 2017, C7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVaccines
AbbreviationVaccines (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-393X
Infectious Diseases
Pharmacology (medical)
Drug Discovery

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