How to format your references using the The Journal of Arthroplasty citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Arthroplasty. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Blow N. Metabolomics: Biochemistry’s new look. Nature 2008;455:697–700.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Arlot-Bonnemains Y, Prigent C. Cell cycle. A trigger for centrosome duplication. Science 2002;295:455–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Sharma BR, Manjanath A, Singh AK. Pentahexoctite: a new two-dimensional allotrope of carbon. Sci Rep 2014;4:7164.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Ettwig KF, Butler MK, Le Paslier D, Pelletier E, Mangenot S, Kuypers MMM, et al. Nitrite-driven anaerobic methane oxidation by oxygenic bacteria. Nature 2010;464:543–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Wang Z-G. Internal Combustion Processes of Liquid Rocket Engines. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
[1]
Basin D, Mitchell JC, editors. Principles of Security and Trust: Second International Conference, POST 2013, Held as Part of the European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2013, Rome, Italy, March 16-24, 2013. Proceedings. vol. 7796. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Tsao Y-S, Merchant AA, Meyer A, Liu Z, Smith M, Levitan D, et al. Integrated Pathway Analysis of Genome-Wide Expression Changes Associated with Serum-Free Suspension Adaptation of an Antibody-Producing Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Cell Line. In: Kamihira M, Katakura Y, Ito A, editors. Animal Cell Technology: Basic & Applied Aspects: Proceedings of the 21st Annual and International Meeting of the Japanese Association for Animal Cell Technology (JAACT), Fukuoka, Japan, November 24-27, 2008, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010, p. 27–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Arthroplasty.

Blog post
[1]
Fang J. Boats and Blue Whales Collide in Waters off California. IFLScience 2014.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Science Indicators: Improvements Needed in Design, Construction, and Interpretation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Colna KE. Latitudinal Position and Trends of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and its Relationship with Upwelling in the Southern Caribbean Sea and Global Climate Indices. Doctoral dissertation. University of South Florida, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Billard M. Feeling Free of All Ties. New York Times 2010:E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Arthroplasty
AbbreviationJ. Arthroplasty
ISSN (print)0883-5403
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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