How to format your references using the Brain Tumor Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Tumor Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Krug RM (2006) Virology. Clues to the virulence of H5N1 viruses in humans. Science 311:1562–1563
A journal article with 2 authors
Heisler IA, Meech SR (2010) Low-frequency modes of aqueous alkali halide solutions: glimpsing the hydrogen bonding vibration. Science 327:857–860
A journal article with 3 authors
Angelakis DG, Das P, Noh C (2014) Probing the topological properties of the Jackiw-Rebbi model with light. Sci Rep 4:6110
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Hughes JF, Skaletsky H, Pyntikova T, et al (2010) Chimpanzee and human Y chromosomes are remarkably divergent in structure and gene content. Nature 463:536–539

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stokes DJ (2008) Principles and Practice of Variable Pressure/Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (VP-ESEM). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Toldrá F (2009) Safety of Meat and Processed Meat. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Cook A (2013) Feeling Better: Moral Sense and Sensibility in Enlightenment Thought. In: Lloyd HM (ed) The Discourse of Sensibility: The Knowing Body in the Enlightenment. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 85–103

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Tumor Pathology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Hungry Spiderlings Cannibalize Their Mother. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) Transportation Services: Better Dissemination and Oversight of DOT’s Guidance Could Lead to Improved Access for Limited English-Proficient Populations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liggins J (2012) Self-concept education as a motivator of life effectiveness. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
The following scouting report on the Oakland Athletics was prepared by Tom Kelly, The Manager of The, with the editorial assistance of Michael Martinez (1988) This Team Flattens Opponents. New York Times D17

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Tumor Pathology
AbbreviationBrain Tumor Pathol.
ISSN (print)1433-7398
ISSN (online)1861-387X
ScopeCancer Research
General Medicine
Clinical Neurology

Other styles