How to format your references using the Brain Tumor Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Tumor Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bowles S (2012) Warriors, levelers, and the role of conflict in human social evolution. Science 336:876–879
A journal article with 2 authors
Duncan RP, Williams PA (2002) Ecology: Darwin’s naturalization hypothesis challenged. Nature 417:608–609
A journal article with 3 authors
Sousa T, Marques GM, Domingos T (2009) Comment on “Energy uptake and allocation during ontogeny.” Science 325:1206; author reply 1206
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Singh V, Rai RK, Arora A, et al (2014) Therapeutic implication of L-phenylalanine aggregation mechanism and its modulation by D-phenylalanine in phenylketonuria. Sci Rep 4:3875

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chappell D (2008) The JCT Intermediate Building Contracts 2005. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Tortajada C, Altinbilek D, Biswas AK (2012) Impacts of Large Dams: A Global Assessment. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Ivry AL (2008) The Ontological Entailments of Averroes’ Understanding of Perception. In: Knuuttila S, Kärkkäinen P (eds) Theories of Perception in Medieval and Early Modern Philosophy. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 73–86

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Tumor Pathology.

Blog post
Hale T (2017) These Gorgeous Videos Filmed Through A Microscope Will Blow Your Mind. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) Federal Aviation Administration’s Advanced Automation System Investment. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oppenheimer C (2010) Use of bibliotherapy as an adjunctive therapy with bereaved children: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chapman MM, Maynard M (2010) Thousands Line Up at Ballpark For Farewell to Voice of Tigers. New York Times B12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Tumor Pathology
AbbreviationBrain Tumor Pathol.
ISSN (print)1433-7398
ISSN (online)1861-387X
ScopeCancer Research
General Medicine
Clinical Neurology

Other styles