How to format your references using the Vaccine: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vaccine: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tsai JW. The M.D.-Ph.D. double agent. Science 2015;350:1434.
A journal article with 2 authors
Murakami M, Kouyama T. Crystal structure of squid rhodopsin. Nature 2008;453:363–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Frommer WB, Schulze WX, Lalonde S. Plant science. Hexokinase, Jack-of-all-trades. Science 2003;300:261–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Scopigno T, Ruocco G, Sette F, Monaco G. Is the fragility of a liquid embedded in the properties of its glass? Science 2003;302:849–52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Demaria C. Introduction to Private Equity. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Strasser A. Modelling of GPCRs: A Practical Handbook. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Deng X, Liu J, Ma E, Jiang L, Yu R, Jiang Q, et al. Impact Assessments on Water and Heat Fluxes of Terrestrial Ecosystem Due to Land Use Change. In: Zhan J, editor. Impacts of Land-use Change on Ecosystem Services, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015, p. 149–209.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vaccine: X.

Blog post
Andrew E. WHO Declares Ebola A Public Health Emergency. IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellites: Agencies Must Act Quickly to Address Risks That Jeopardize the Continuity of Weather and Climate Data. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zeedick DM. The modified delphi method to analyze the application of instructional design theory to online graduate education. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B, Mazzetti M, Schmitt E. Saudi King’s Son Plotted Effort to Oust His Rival. New York Times 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVaccine: X
ISSN (print)2590-1362

Other styles