How to format your references using the Journal of the Geological Society of London citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Geological Society of London. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wurtz, R.H. 2013. Retrospective. David H. Hubel (1926-2013). Science (New York, N.Y.), 342, 572.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wood, W.B. and Gentile, J.M. 2003. Education. Teaching in a research context. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302, 1510.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chan, P., Curtis, R.A. and Warwicker, J. 2013. Soluble expression of proteins correlates with a lack of positively-charged surface. Scientific reports, 3, 3333.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Crooker, S.A., Furis, M., Lou, X., Adelmann, C., Smith, D.L., Palmstrøm, C.J. and Crowell, P.A. 2005. Imaging spin transport in lateral ferromagnet/semiconductor structures. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309, 2191–2195.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mazzi, B. 2013. Treasury Finance and Development Banking.
An edited book
Lin, T.Y., Xie, Y., Wasilewska, A. and Liau, C.-J. (eds). 2008. Data Mining: Foundations and Practice. Studies in Computational Intelligence.
A chapter in an edited book
Hardin, P.J., Jackson, M.W. and Shumway, J.M. 2007. Intraurban Population Estimation Using Remotely Sensed Imagery. In: Jensen, R. R., Gatrell, J. D. and McLean, D. (eds) Geo-Spatial Technologies in Urban Environments: Policy, Practice, and Pixels. 47–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Geological Society of London.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2015. Stephen Fry Gets His Own Asteroid. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1975. Space Transportation System. 093513.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Danso Odei, P.K. 2017. Effective Resolution of The Bibiani-Anhwianso-Bekwai District Healthcare Delivery System: An Outcome-Based Evaluative Case. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. 2017. The Jazz Age Relived. New York Times, F8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wurtz 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Wood and Gentile 2003; Wurtz 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wood and Gentile 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Crooker et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Geological Society of London
AbbreviationJ. Geol. Soc. London
ISSN (print)0016-7649
ISSN (online)2041-479X

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