How to format your references using the Journal of the Geological Society of London citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Geological Society of London. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nelson, P.C. 2012. Biochemistry. Spare the (elastic) rod. Science (New York, N.Y.), 337, 1045–1046.
A journal article with 2 authors
Buyx, A. and Tait, J. 2011. Ethics. Ethical framework for biofuels. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332, 540–541.
A journal article with 3 authors
Anderson, D.M., Overpeck, J.T. and Gupta, A.K. 2002. Increase in the Asian southwest monsoon during the past four centuries. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297, 596–599.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ghezraoui, H., Oliveira, C., et al. 2018. 53BP1 cooperation with the REV7-shieldin complex underpins DNA structure-specific NHEJ. Nature, 560, 122–127.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cardon, A. and Itmi, M. 2016. New Autonomous Systems.
An edited book
Bello, F. and Cotin, S. (eds). 2014. Biomedical Simulation: 6th International Symposium, ISBMS 2014, Strasbourg, France, October 16-17, 2014. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science.
A chapter in an edited book
Ricciardi, F. 2010. ICTs in an Ageing Society: An Overview of Emerging Research Streams. In: D’Atri, A., De Marco, M., Braccini, A. M. and Cabiddu, F. (eds) Management of the Interconnected World: ItAIS: The Italian Association for Information Systems. 37–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Geological Society of London.

Blog post
Andrews, R. 2017. Here’s How Scientists Invented Real-Life Sonic Screwdrivers. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2002. Special Education: Grant Programs Designed to Serve Children Ages 0-5. GAO-02-394.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jackson, M. 2012. A Bibliometric Analysis of Green Building Literature. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Scialabba, G. 2017. Five Who Shook the World. New York Times, BR21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nelson 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Buyx and Tait 2011; Nelson 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Buyx and Tait 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Ghezraoui et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Geological Society of London
AbbreviationJ. Geol. Soc. London
ISSN (print)0016-7649
ISSN (online)2041-479X

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