How to format your references using the Journal of the Geological Society of London citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Geological Society of London. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rowley, J.D. 2013. Genetics. A story of swapped ends. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340, 1412–1413.
A journal article with 2 authors
Casasanto, D. and Gordon, P. 2005. Crying ‘Whorf’. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307, 1721–1722.
A journal article with 3 authors
Green, D.R., Galluzzi, L. and Kroemer, G. 2014. Cell biology. Metabolic control of cell death. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345, 1250256.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Han, J., Zheng, Y., Zhao, B., Li, S., Zhang, Y. and Gao, C. 2014. Sequentially hetero-functional, topological polymers by step-growth thiol-yne approach. Scientific reports, 4, 4387.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Del Pico, W.J. 2014. Electrical Estimating Methods.
An edited book
Roth, B.L. (ed.). 2006. The Serotonin Receptors: From Molecular Pharmacology to Human Therapeutics. The Receptors.
A chapter in an edited book
Thomas, J.-B., Hardeberg, J.Y. and Trémeau, A. 2013. Cross-Media Color Reproduction and Display Characterization. In: Fernandez-Maloigne, C. (ed.) Advanced Color Image Processing and Analysis. 81–118.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Geological Society of London.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2015. A New Parasite Is Infecting Tadpoles Across Three Continents. IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1979. Selected FCC Regulatory Policies: Their Purpose and Consequences for Commercial Radio and TV. CED-79-62.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fino, M. 2010. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Exercise Practices of College Students of Color. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S. 2002. BackTalk; Uncertainty and Stress Cross the Finish Line. New York Times, 811.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rowley 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Casasanto and Gordon 2005; Rowley 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Casasanto and Gordon 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Han et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Geological Society of London
AbbreviationJ. Geol. Soc. London
ISSN (print)0016-7649
ISSN (online)2041-479X

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