How to format your references using the Journal of the Geological Society of London citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Geological Society of London. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Elmegreen, B.G. 2007. Astronomy. Dark matter in galactic collisional debris. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316, 1132–1133.
A journal article with 2 authors
Morris, R.G.M. and Takeuchi, T. 2012. Neuroscience. The imaginary mind of a mouse. Science (New York, N.Y.), 335, 1455–1456.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moles, A., Kieffer, B.L. and D’Amato, F.R. 2004. Deficit in attachment behavior in mice lacking the mu-opioid receptor gene. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304, 1983–1986.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Villanueva-Gutiérrez, R., Echazarreta-González, C., Roubik, D.W. and Moguel-Ordóñez, Y.B. 2014. Transgenic soybean pollen (Glycine max L.) in honey from the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico. Scientific reports, 4, 4022.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Knowles, R. 2012. 200 Contractual Problems and Their Solutions.
An edited book
Salzmann, N., Huggel, C., Nussbaumer, S.U. and Ziervogel, G. (eds). 2016. Climate Change Adaptation Strategies – An Upstream-Downstream Perspective.
A chapter in an edited book
Andersson, J. 2016. Reaching the World Through Free Licenses and Wikimedia’s Crowdsourced Platforms. In: Ioannides, M., Fink, E., et al. (eds) Digital Heritage. Progress in Cultural Heritage: Documentation, Preservation, and Protection: 6th International Conference, EuroMed 2016, Nicosia, Cyprus, October 31 – November 5, 2016, Proceedings, Part II. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 33–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Geological Society of London.

Blog post
Andrew, D. 2017. Data Should Smash the Biological Myth of Promiscuous Males and Sexually Coy Females. IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1979. Federal Program To Strengthen Developing Institutions of Higher Education Lacks Direction. HRD-78-170.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vaughn, E.L. 2013. Find Me on Facebook: A New Typology for Categorizing Online Personalities. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neuman, W. 2014. At Least 3 Die in Collapse of Gold Mine. New York Times, A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Elmegreen 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Elmegreen 2007; Morris and Takeuchi 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Morris and Takeuchi 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Villanueva-Gutiérrez et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Geological Society of London
AbbreviationJ. Geol. Soc. London
ISSN (print)0016-7649
ISSN (online)2041-479X

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