How to format your references using the Environmental Systems Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Systems Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P (2004) The philanthropic principle. Nature 431:719
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Neill MJ, O’Neill RJ (2014) Genomics: Something to swing about. Nature 513:174–175
A journal article with 3 authors
Berken A, Thomas C, Wittinghofer A (2005) A new family of RhoGEFs activates the Rop molecular switch in plants. Nature 436:1176–1180
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Nishio J, Gaglia JL, Turvey SE, et al (2006) Islet recovery and reversal of murine type 1 diabetes in the absence of any infused spleen cell contribution. Science 311:1775–1778

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lalanne C (2014) Random Vibration. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Lange D, Chew B (eds) (2016) The Role of Bacteria in Urology, 1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Wang Y, Tanaka K (2014) Strongly Simulation-Extractable Leakage-Resilient NIZK. In: Susilo W, Mu Y (eds) Information Security and Privacy: 19th Australasian Conference, ACISP 2014, Wollongong, NSW, Australia, July 7-9, 2014. Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 66–81

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Systems Research.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Scientists Develop Shatterproof iPhone Screens. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) P.L. 480 Title I Transportation Issues. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haire KK (2015) Elucidation of the Role of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase in Drug-Induced Toxicity. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller B, Baker AL (2016) Heroin Market Shapes Enforcer’s Rise and Fall. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2004; O’Neill and O’Neill 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (O’Neill and O’Neill 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Nishio et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Systems Research
AbbreviationEnviron. Syst. Res.
ISSN (online)2193-2697
Scope

Other styles