How to format your references using the Environmental Systems Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Systems Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weinberg DH (2005) Astronomy. Mapping the large-scale structure of the universe. Science 309:564–565
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang Z, Zhao Y (2006) MATERIALS SCIENCE: High-Pressure Microscopy. Science 312:1149–1150
A journal article with 3 authors
Pendry JB, Martín-Moreno L, Garcia-Vidal FJ (2004) Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces. Science 305:847–848
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Hiroi T, Abe M, Kitazato K, et al (2006) Developing space weathering on the asteroid 25143 Itokawa. Nature 443:56–58

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grant G (2016) The Water Sensitive City. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Lehmann A, Wolf S (eds) (2015) Information Theoretic Security: 8th International Conference, ICITS 2015, Lugano, Switzerland, May 2-5, 2015. Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Kjærulff UB, Madsen AL (2013) Solving Probabilistic Networks. In: Madsen AL (ed) Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams: A Guide to Construction and Analysis. Springer, New York, NY, pp 111–142

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Systems Research.

Blog post
Andrew D (2015) Awesome Science Parody Of Taylor Swift Song. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978) Update of Economic Analysis of Impact Aid Program Reflecting the Educational Amendments of 1974. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schewe EM (2016) Re-establishing Connections: Listening to Women Psychology Students Talk about Recovery. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B (2016) Roll Over, Beyoncé: Chuck Berry’s Surprise. New York Times C4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Weinberg 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Weinberg 2005; Wang and Zhao 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang and Zhao 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Hiroi et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Systems Research
AbbreviationEnviron. Syst. Res.
ISSN (online)2193-2697

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