How to format your references using the Environmental Systems Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Systems Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Service RF (2008) Problem solved (sort of). Science 321:784–786
A journal article with 2 authors
McCollom TM, Hynek BM (2005) A volcanic environment for bedrock diagenesis at Meridiani Planum on Mars. Nature 438:1129–1131
A journal article with 3 authors
Cabernard C, Prehoda KE, Doe CQ (2010) A spindle-independent cleavage furrow positioning pathway. Nature 467:91–94
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Geim AK, Dubonos SV, Grigorieva IV IV, et al (2000) Non-quantized penetration of magnetic field in the vortex state of superconductors. Nature 407:55–57

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Popescu D, Gharbi A, Stefanoiu D, Borne P (2017) Process Control Design for Industrial Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Nomura T, Watanabe T, Habu S (eds) (2008) Humanized Mice. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Anuradha RV, Joshi P (2016) Natural Resources Regime in India: Impact on Trade and Investment. In: Matsushita M, Schoenbaum TJ (eds) Emerging Issues in Sustainable Development: International Trade Law and Policy Relating to Natural Resources, Energy, and the Environment. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp 59–76

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Systems Research.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Created A “Dirty Blizzard” That Lasted Months. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996) International Aviation: DOT’s Efforts to Increase U.S. Airlines’ Access to International Markets. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Belknap BM (2012) Fostering Resilience in Beginning Special Education Teachers. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L (2007) Few Voters Show Up to Elect Two Democrats. New York Times 14LI2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Service 2008).
This sentence cites two references (McCollom and Hynek 2005; Service 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McCollom and Hynek 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Geim et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Systems Research
AbbreviationEnviron. Syst. Res.
ISSN (online)2193-2697

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