How to format your references using the Environmental Systems Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Systems Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zala K (2007) Careers in behavioral science. Public opinion research: measuring happiness. Science 316:1060–1061
A journal article with 2 authors
Thompson A, Kanamarlapudi V (2014) The regions within the N-terminus critical for human glucagon like peptide-1 receptor (hGLP-1R) cell surface expression. Sci Rep 4:7410
A journal article with 3 authors
Georgellis D, Kwon O, Lin EC (2001) Quinones as the redox signal for the arc two-component system of bacteria. Science 292:2314–2316
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ortiz-Urda S, Garcia J, Green CL, et al (2005) Type VII collagen is required for Ras-driven human epidermal tumorigenesis. Science 307:1773–1776

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abid MM (2006) Spacecraft Sensors. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Braz J, Ranchordas A, Araújo H, Jorge J (eds) (2007) Advances in Computer Graphics and Computer Vision: International Conferences VISAPP and GRAPP 2006, Setúbal, Portugal, February 25-28, 2006, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Dabelea D (2009) Maternal-Fetal Contributors to the Insulin Resistance Syndrome in Youth. In: Zeitler PS, Nadeau KJ (eds) Insulin Resistance: Childhood Precursors and Adult Disease. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp 65–80

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Systems Research.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2015) Celestial Fireworks due in 2018 When a Pulsar Passes Through the Atmosphere of a Giant Star. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1975) Line-item Control of Contractors’ Independent Research and Development and Bid and Proposal Costs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boylan M (2010) Acute physiological resonses to yoga activity in a hot environment. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2014) With Memories Entrenched, a Hallowed Site Plows Forward. New York Times SP5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zala 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Zala 2007; Thompson and Kanamarlapudi 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thompson and Kanamarlapudi 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Ortiz-Urda et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Systems Research
AbbreviationEnviron. Syst. Res.
ISSN (online)2193-2697

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