How to format your references using the Environmental Systems Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Systems Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wang SC (2000) ESSAYS ON SCIENCE AND SOCIETY: In Search of Einstein’s Genius. Science 289:1477
A journal article with 2 authors
Rock JR, Hogan BLM (2010) Developmental biology. Branching takes nerve. Science 329:1610–1611
A journal article with 3 authors
Ahn CH, Triscone J-M, Mannhart J (2003) Electric field effect in correlated oxide systems. Nature 424:1015–1018
A journal article with 5 or more authors
von Dohlen CD, Kohler S, Alsop ST, McManus WR (2001) Mealybug beta-proteobacterial endosymbionts contain gamma-proteobacterial symbionts. Nature 412:433–436

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dimond B (2010) Legal Aspects of Occupational Therapy. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Sirgy MJ, Rahtz D, Swain D (eds) (2006) Community Quality-of-Life Indicators: Best Cases II. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Leung K-N (2012) Compact Neutron Generator for BNCT. In: Sauerwein W, Wittig A, Moss R, Nakagawa Y (eds) Neutron Capture Therapy: Principles and Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 55–67

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Systems Research.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) What’s The Difference Between An Outbreak And An Epidemic? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Human Resources and Payroll Systems Requirements. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Todman JV (2016) Applicability of health care leadership competence and leadership behaviors for women’s achieving health care executive status. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman J (2017) Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times MM20

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wang 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Wang 2000; Rock and Hogan 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rock and Hogan 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (von Dohlen et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Systems Research
AbbreviationEnviron. Syst. Res.
ISSN (online)2193-2697

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