How to format your references using the Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gilbert D. Buried by bad decisions. Nature 2011;474:275–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schorlemmer D, Wiemer S. Earth science: microseismicity data forecast rupture area. Nature 2005;434:1086.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tarchini B, Duboule D, Kmita M. Regulatory constraints in the evolution of the tetrapod limb anterior-posterior polarity. Nature 2006;443:985–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lee H-H, Chang C-C, Shieh M-J, Wang J-P, Chen Y-T, Young T-H, et al. Hypoxia enhances chondrogenesis and prevents terminal differentiation through PI3K/Akt/FoxO dependent anti-apoptotic effect. Sci Rep 2013;3:2683.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mead DE. Becoming a Marriage and Family Therapist. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2013.
An edited book
Rozenberg G, Salomaa A, Sempere JM, Zandron C, editors. Membrane Computing: 16th International Conference, CMC 2015, Valencia, Spain, August 17-21, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. vol. 9504. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Lee W. Structural Engineering of Porous Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) and Applications. In: Losic D, Santos A, editors. Nanoporous Alumina: Fabrication, Structure, Properties and Applications, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 107–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation.

Blog post
Fang J. Oldest European Genome Sequenced. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Charges Made by the National Federation of the Blind Against the National Accreditation Council for Agencies Serving the Blind and Visually Handicapped. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Norris EL. A depth psychological view of the Christian myth: C. G. Jung, Elizabeth Boyden Howes, and the Guild for Psychological Studies. Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B. Fourth Passer? Jets May Go Deep. New York Times 2016:B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCase Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
ISSN (print)2214-6571
ScopeComputational Mechanics
Mechanics of Materials
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Materials Science (miscellaneous)

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