How to format your references using the Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kerr RA. OCEANOGRAPHY: Missing Mixing Found in the Deep Sea. Science 2000;288:1947–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Krüger F, Ohrnberger M. Tracking the rupture of the Mw = 9.3 Sumatra earthquake over 1,150 km at teleseismic distance. Nature 2005;435:937–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Häusser M, Major G, Stuart GJ. Differential shunting of EPSPs by action potentials. Science 2001;291:138–41.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Stohr J, Samant MG, Luning J, Callegari AC, Chaudhari P, Doyle JP, et al. Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order. Science 2001;292:2299–302.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Freeman RL. Telecommunication System Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Landsman K, van Wolde E, editors. The Challenge of Chance: A Multidisciplinary Approach from Science and the Humanities. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Herrera LJ, Pomares H, Rojas I, Verleysen M, Guilén A. Effective Input Variable Selection for Function Approximation. In: Kollias SD, Stafylopatis A, Duch W, Oja E, editors. Artificial Neural Networks – ICANN 2006: 16th International Conference, Athens, Greece, September 10-14, 2006. Proceedings, Part I, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006, p. 41–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation.

Blog post
Andrew D. Sloths Aren’t Lazy – Their Slowness Is A Survival Skill. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Grant Programs: Design Features Shape Flexibility, Accountability, and Performance Information. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mhatre AB. Zone-Clipper. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B. Spotify Is Growing. So Are Its Losses. New York Times 2017:B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCase Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
ISSN (print)2214-6571
ScopeComputational Mechanics
Mechanics of Materials
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Materials Science (miscellaneous)

Other styles