How to format your references using the Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hemley RJ. The element of uncertainty. Nature 2000;404:240–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pasare C, Medzhitov R. Control of B-cell responses by Toll-like receptors. Nature 2005;438:364–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fraser C, Hanage WP, Spratt BG. Recombination and the nature of bacterial speciation. Science 2007;315:476–80.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kopp A, Duncan I, Godt D, Carroll SB. Genetic control and evolution of sexually dimorphic characters in Drosophila. Nature 2000;408:553–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown R. Rational Choice and Judgment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Meier R, Terzis S, editors. Distributed Applications and Interoperable Systems: 8th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, DAIS 2008, Oslo, Norway, June 4-6, 2008. Proceedings. vol. 5053. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Balaji Rao K, Anoop MB, Vinod G, Kushwaha HS. Risk Informed In-Service Inspection of PWR Nuclear Power Plant Piping Components Subjected to Erosion-Corrosion Using Markov Chain Model. In: Kumar U, Ahmadi A, Verma AK, Varde P, editors. Current Trends in Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety: An Industry Perspective, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 39–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation.

Blog post
Andrew D. Ten Tips To Help Students Become More Employable. IFLScience 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Job Corps: Participant Selection and Performance Measurement Need to Be Improved. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Olszewski RM. Donor Motivations for Donating to a Nonprofit Without a Previous Relationship. Doctoral dissertation. Northcentral University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vlasic B. Despite Recalls, G.M. Pays Workers Big Bonus. New York Times 2015:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCase Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
ISSN (print)2214-6571
ScopeComputational Mechanics
Mechanics of Materials
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Materials Science (miscellaneous)

Other styles