How to format your references using the Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koenig R. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS: Bulgarians Sue CERN for Leniency. Science 2000;290:252.
A journal article with 2 authors
Andrew P, Barnes WL. Energy transfer across a metal film mediated by surface plasmon polaritons. Science 2004;306:1002–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim BS, Yook KS, Lee JY. Above 20% external quantum efficiency in novel hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes having green thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitter. Sci Rep 2014;4:6019.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lawniczak MKN, Emrich SJ, Holloway AK, Regier AP, Olson M, White B, et al. Widespread divergence between incipient Anopheles gambiae species revealed by whole genome sequences. Science 2010;330:512–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matte GS. Perfusion for Congenital Heart Surgery. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Rival X, editor. Static Analysis: 23rd International Symposium, SAS 2016, Edinburgh, UK, September 8-10, 2016, Proceedings. vol. 9837. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Evans K. Tacit Skills and Occupational Mobility in a Global Culture. In: Zajda J, Freeman K, Geo-Jaja M, Majhanovic S, Rust V, Zajda R, editors. International Handbook on Globalisation, Education and Policy Research: Global Pedagogies and Policies, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005, p. 65–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation.

Blog post
Hale T. This Presidential Hopeful Has A Rather ... Interesting Theory On Why The Pyramids Were Built. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Survival of Higher Education in the Years Ahead. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peterson K. Development of a facility-specific dietary training program for diet technicians. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J. A Parent’s Small Moment of Grace. New York Times 2017:C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCase Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
ISSN (print)2214-6571
ScopeComputational Mechanics
Mechanics of Materials
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Materials Science (miscellaneous)

Other styles