How to format your references using the Vaccine Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vaccine Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Seife, MATERIALS SCIENCE: Long-Wavelength Lasers Sniff Out New Uses, Science. 290 (2000) 916–917.
A journal article with 2 authors
C.S. Cockell, M.D. Stokes, Ecology: widespread colonization by polar hypoliths, Nature. 431 (2004) 414.
A journal article with 3 authors
Y. Usami, Y. Wu, H.G. Göttlinger, SERINC3 and SERINC5 restrict HIV-1 infectivity and are counteracted by Nef, Nature. 526 (2015) 218–223.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Bakolitsa, D.M. Cohen, L.A. Bankston, A.A. Bobkov, G.W. Cadwell, L. Jennings, D.R. Critchley, S.W. Craig, R.C. Liddington, Structural basis for vinculin activation at sites of cell adhesion, Nature. 430 (2004) 583–586.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W. Storhas, Bioverfahrensentwicklung, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2013.
An edited book
H.R. Ebaugh, ed., Handbook of Religion and Social Institutions, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Pérez, M. Arenas, C. Gutierrez, nSPARQL: A Navigational Language for RDF, in: A. Sheth, S. Staab, M. Dean, M. Paolucci, D. Maynard, T. Finin, K. Thirunarayan (Eds.), The Semantic Web - ISWC 2008: 7th International Semantic Web Conference, ISWC 2008, Karlsruhe, Germany, October 26-30, 2008. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008: pp. 66–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vaccine Reports.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Explainer: The Models That Help Us Predict Climate Change, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Transit Benefits Program: Ineffective Controls Result in Fraud and Abuse by Federal Workers, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K. Akers, The Impact of Work-Family Conflict, Gender, and Family-Friendly Policies on Organizational Attractiveness and Job Pursuit Intentions, Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, A Different Battleground, A Lobby’s Bulletin Board, New York Times. (2002) 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVaccine Reports
AbbreviationVaccine Rep.
ISSN (print)2405-7843

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