How to format your references using the Vaccine Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vaccine Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.J. McDonnell, Creating a research brand, Science. 349 (2015) 758.
A journal article with 2 authors
P. Chesson, J.J. Kuang, The interaction between predation and competition, Nature. 456 (2008) 235–238.
A journal article with 3 authors
T.E. DeCoursey, D. Morgan, V.V. Cherny, The voltage dependence of NADPH oxidase reveals why phagocytes need proton channels, Nature. 422 (2003) 531–534.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Langevin, F. Poulet, J.-P. Bibring, B. Schmitt, S. Douté, B. Gondet, Summer evolution of the north polar cap of Mars as observed by OMEGA/Mars Express, Science. 307 (2005) 1581–1584.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B. Leuf, The Semantic Web, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2006.
An edited book
T.W. MacFarland, Introduction to Nonparametric Statistics for the Biological Sciences Using R, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
W. Grossmann, C. Moser, Big Data—Integration and Cleansing Environment for Business Analytics with DICE, in: D. Karagiannis, H.C. Mayr, J. Mylopoulos (Eds.), Domain-Specific Conceptual Modeling: Concepts, Methods and Tools, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 103–123.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vaccine Reports.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Methane Detected On Mars Could Have Come From Curiosity, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Space Station: Russian-Built and Service Module Compliance With Safety Requirements, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.L. Eastwood, The effects of an interdisciplinary undergraduate human biology program on socioscientific reasoning, content learning, and understanding of inquiry, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S.M. Nir, Police Seek Photos of Central Park Related to 2016 Blast That Destroyed a Tourist’s Leg, New York Times. (2017) A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVaccine Reports
AbbreviationVaccine Rep.
ISSN (print)2405-7843

Other styles