How to format your references using the BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Butler D. Europe agrees to boost Internet networks used by researchers. Nature. 2000;405:261–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Richerson PJ, Boyd R. Migration: an engine for social change. Nature. 2008;456:877.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Parr BT, Economou C, Herzon SB. A concise synthesis of (+)-batzelladine B from simple pyrrole-based starting materials. Nature. 2015;525:507–10.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Lantz MA, Hug HJ, Hoffmann R, van Schendel PJ, Kappenberger P, Martin S, et al. Quantitative measurement of short-range chemical bonding forces. Science. 2001;291:2580–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Chartered Institute of Building. Code of Practice for Programme Management in the Built Environment. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1. Fischinger M, editor. Performance-Based Seismic Engineering: Vision for an Earthquake Resilient Society. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Stańczak S, Wiczanowski M, Boche H. Resource Allocation Problem in Communications Networks. In: Wiczanowski M, Boche H, editors. Fundamentals of Resource Allocation in Wireless Networks: Theory and Algorithms. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 119–257.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. Science Says Parents Of Successful Kids Have These 16 Things In Common. IFLScience. 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/science-says-parents-of-successful-kids-have-these-16-things-in-common/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Voice of America. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Carter IM. The discourse of the divine: Radical traditions of Black feminism, musicking, and myth within the Black public sphere (Civil Rights to the present). Doctoral dissertation. Florida Atlantic University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hirshman L. Off to Work She Should Go. New York Times. 2007;:A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
AbbreviationBMC Complement. Altern. Med.
ISSN (online)1472-6882
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Complementary and alternative medicine

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