How to format your references using the BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. de Knijff P. Genetics. How carrion and hooded crows defeat Linnaeus’s curse. Science. 2014;344:1345–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. McCauley DW, Bronner-Fraser M. Importance of SoxE in neural crest development and the evolution of the pharynx. Nature. 2006;441:750–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Pack CC, Berezovskii VK, Born RT. Dynamic properties of neurons in cortical area MT in alert and anaesthetized macaque monkeys. Nature. 2001;414:905–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Albrengues J, Shields MA, Ng D, Park CG, Ambrico A, Poindexter ME, et al. Neutrophil extracellular traps produced during inflammation awaken dormant cancer cells in mice. Science. 2018;361.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Stein PD. Pulmonary Embolism. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1. Kirda E, Jha S, Balzarotti D, editors. Recent Advances in Intrusion Detection: 12th International Symposium, RAID 2009, Saint-Malo, France, September 23-25, 2009. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Davidson R. Working-Class Women Activists: Citizenship at the Local Level. In: Ackers P, Reid AJ, editors. Alternatives to State-Socialism in Britain: Other Worlds of Labour in the Twentieth Century. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 93–120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Mountain Range’s Collapse May Have Supercharged Evolution. IFLScience. 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/physics/mountain-ranges-collapse-supercharged-evolution/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. University Research: Most Federal Agencies Need to Better Protect against Financial Conflicts of Interest. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Wead MO. Fear and Doubt. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. The Roberts Court Takes On Abortion. New York Times. 2006;:WK14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
AbbreviationBMC Complement. Altern. Med.
ISSN (online)1472-6882
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Complementary and alternative medicine

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