How to format your references using the BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Leggett AJ. Physics. Superconducting qubits--a major roadblock dissolved? Science. 2002;296:861–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Forneris F, Mattevi A. Enzymes without borders: mobilizing substrates, delivering products. Science. 2008;321:213–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Booth LN, Tuch BB, Johnson AD. Intercalation of a new tier of transcription regulation into an ancient circuit. Nature. 2010;468:959–63.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Sawamura M, Kawai K, Matsuo Y, Kanie K, Kato T, Nakamura E. Stacking of conical molecules with a fullerene apex into polar columns in crystals and liquid crystals. Nature. 2002;419:702–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Steenbarger BN. Trading Psychology 2.0. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
1. Gladwell GML, Morassi A, editors. Dynamical Inverse Problems: Theory and Application. Vienna: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Roy U, Majumder M. Result and Discussion. In: Majumder M, editor. Impact of Climate Change on Small Scale Hydro-turbine Selections. Singapore: Springer; 2016. p. 19–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Hair Bleach May Have Powered the Origins Of Life. IFLScience. 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/chemistry/hair-bleach-may-have-powered-origins-life/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Improving the Acquisition of Computer Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Darko-Mensah K. Application of Data Envelopment Analysis to Measure the Online Outsourcing Efficiency of Sub-Saharan African Countries. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Otis J. Young Mother Sees Education as a Path to Help Her Daughter. New York Times. 2016;:A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
AbbreviationBMC Complement. Altern. Med.
ISSN (online)1472-6882
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Complementary and alternative medicine

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