How to format your references using the Flow, Turbulence and Combustion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Flow, Turbulence and Combustion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
van den Bergh, S.: Galaxy morphology: out of order. Nature. 445, 265 (2007)
A journal article with 2 authors
Logan, G.D., Crump, M.J.C.: Cognitive illusions of authorship reveal hierarchical error detection in skilled typists. Science. 330, 683–686 (2010)
A journal article with 3 authors
Biek, R., Drummond, A.J., Poss, M.: A virus reveals population structure and recent demographic history of its carnivore host. Science. 311, 538–541 (2006)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Catalanotto, C., Azzalin, G., Macino, G., Cogoni, C.: Gene silencing in worms and fungi. Nature. 404, 245 (2000)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Best, P.: Implementing Value at Risk. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2005)
An edited book
Grötschel, M., Lucas, K., Mehrmann, V. eds: Production Factor Mathematics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2010)
A chapter in an edited book
Maehata, M.: The Use of Lake Biwa and People’s Lifestyle. In: Kawanabe, H., Nishino, M., and Maehata, M. (eds.) Lake Biwa: Interactions between Nature and People. pp. 309–369. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2012)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Flow, Turbulence and Combustion.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: SpaceX Rocket Explodes Minutes After Launch,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Federal Aviation Administration: Key Issues in Ensuring the Efficient Development and Safe Operation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2007)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Odom, S.A.: Electronic health records: Overcoming obstacles to improve acceptance and utilization for mental health clinicians, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L.: The Choice Confronting the Chief Justice, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFlow, Turbulence and Combustion
AbbreviationAppl. Sci. Res.
ISSN (print)1386-6184
ISSN (online)1573-1987
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
General Physics and Astronomy

Other styles