How to format your references using the Flow, Turbulence and Combustion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Flow, Turbulence and Combustion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon, D.: Complex political, ethical and legal issues surround research on human embryonic stem cells. Nature. 422, 928–929 (2003)
A journal article with 2 authors
Post, E., Forchhammer, M.C.: Synchronization of animal population dynamics by large-scale climate. Nature. 420, 168–171 (2002)
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, C., Yang, Y.-P., Duan, Y.-W.: Pollen sensitivity to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) suggests floral structure evolution in alpine plants. Sci. Rep. 4, 4520 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fyhn, M., Molden, S., Witter, M.P., Moser, E.I., Moser, M.-B.: Spatial representation in the entorhinal cortex. Science. 305, 1258–1264 (2004)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Senez, V., Thomy, V., Dufour, R.: Nanotechnologies for Synthetic Super Non-Wetting Surfaces. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2014)
An edited book
Sellmyer, D., Skomski, R. eds: Advanced Magnetic Nanostructures. Springer US, Boston, MA (2006)
A chapter in an edited book
Apeldoorn, D.: A Spatio-Temporal Multiagent Simulation Framework for Reusing Agents in Different Kinds of Scenarios. In: Müller, J.P., Ketter, W., Kaminka, G., Wagner, G., and Bulling, N. (eds.) Multiagent System Technologies: 13th German Conference, MATES 2015, Cottbus, Germany, September 28 - 30, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. pp. 79–97. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Flow, Turbulence and Combustion.

Blog post
Andrew, D.: What Missing Lander Means For Europe’s Quest To Find Life On Mars,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Information Security: State Has Taken Steps to Implement a Continuous Monitoring Application, but Key Challenges Remain. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2011)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grigoryan, A.: Feedback 2.0 in online writing instruction: Combining audio-visual and text-based commentary to enhance student revision and writing competency, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ewing, J., Goldman, A., Tabuchi, H.: VW Executive’s Trip Let F.B.I. Pounce, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFlow, Turbulence and Combustion
AbbreviationAppl. Sci. Res.
ISSN (print)1386-6184
ISSN (online)1573-1987
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
General Physics and Astronomy

Other styles