How to format your references using the Flow, Turbulence and Combustion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Flow, Turbulence and Combustion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sansom, D.M.: IMMUNOLOGY. Moving CTLA-4 from the trash to recycling. Science. 349, 377–378 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Ryan, A.J., Christensen, P.R.: Coils and polygonal crust in the Athabasca Valles region, Mars, as evidence for a volcanic history. Science. 336, 449–452 (2012)
A journal article with 3 authors
Rich, T., Allen, R.L., Wyllie, A.H.: Defying death after DNA damage. Nature. 407, 777–783 (2000)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jiao, Y., Wickett, N.J., Ayyampalayam, S., Chanderbali, A.S., Landherr, L., Ralph, P.E., Tomsho, L.P., Hu, Y., Liang, H., Soltis, P.S., Soltis, D.E., Clifton, S.W., Schlarbaum, S.E., Schuster, S.C., Ma, H., Leebens-Mack, J., dePamphilis, C.W.: Ancestral polyploidy in seed plants and angiosperms. Nature. 473, 97–100 (2011)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wartenberg, T.E.: A Sneetch Is a Sneetch and Other Philosophical Discoveries. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK (2013)
An edited book
Britten, C.M., Kreiter, S., Diken, M., Rammensee, H.-G. eds: Cancer Immunotherapy Meets Oncology: In Honor of Christoph Huber. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Hashimoto, S.: Glucose Metabolism and Liver. In: Ohira, H. (ed.) The Liver in Systemic Diseases. pp. 77–103. Springer Japan, Tokyo (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Flow, Turbulence and Combustion.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Finding An Affordable Way To Use Graphene Is The Key To Its Success,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Information Technology: OMB Needs to Improve Its Guidance on IT Investments. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2011)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Teeter, C.M.: Characterizing the Spatial Density Functions of Neural Arbors, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J.: Lugo’s Tear to Cost Him Two Weeks, Minimum, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFlow, Turbulence and Combustion
AbbreviationAppl. Sci. Res.
ISSN (print)1386-6184
ISSN (online)1573-1987
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
General Physics and Astronomy

Other styles