How to format your references using the Journal of Nonverbal Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Nonverbal Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fauci, A. S. (2008). 25 years of HIV. Nature, 453(7193), 289–290.
A journal article with 2 authors
Elliott, J. E., & Elliott, K. H. (2013). Environmental science. Tracking marine pollution. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6132), 556–558.
A journal article with 3 authors
McDonald, J. J., Teder-Sälejärvi, W. A., & Hillyard, S. A. (2000). Involuntary orienting to sound improves visual perception. Nature, 407(6806), 906–908.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Esplugues, E., Huber, S., Gagliani, N., Hauser, A. E., Town, T., Wan, Y. Y., et al. (2011). Control of TH17 cells occurs in the small intestine. Nature, 475(7357), 514–518.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fernando, X. N. (2014). Radio Over Fiber for Wireless Communications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Fonseca, F., Rodríguez, M. A., & Levashkin, S. (Eds.). (2007). GeoSpatial Semantics: Second International Conference, GeoS 2007, Mexico City, Mexico, November 29-30, 2007. Proceedings (Vol. 4853). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lahti, D. C. (2009). The Correlated History of Social Organization, Moralitymorality , and Religion. In E. Voland & W. Schiefenhövel (Eds.), The Biological Evolution of Religious Mind and Behavior (pp. 67–88). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Nonverbal Behavior.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, April 17). 300 Million Year Old Fossil Sheds Light On Herbivore Evolution. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Executive Office of the President: Analysis of EOP’s 1999 Information Technology Architecture Update and Capital Investment Plan Report (No. AIMD-00-63R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Freeman, M. J. (2012). Gene-environment interaction in early onset bipolar disorder (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. (2016, December 28). Art That’s Disposable, but by No Means Throwaway. New York Times, p. A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fauci 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Elliott and Elliott 2013; Fauci 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Elliott and Elliott 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Esplugues et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Nonverbal Behavior
AbbreviationJ. Nonverbal Behav.
ISSN (print)0191-5886
ISSN (online)1573-3653
ScopeSocial Psychology

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