How to format your references using the Journal of Nonverbal Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Nonverbal Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ricci, L. (2005). History of science: Dante’s insight into galilean invariance. Nature, 434(7034), 717.
A journal article with 2 authors
Müller, F.-J., & Schuppert, A. (2011). Few inputs can reprogram biological networks. Nature, 478(7369), E4; discussion E4-5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schefuss, E., Schouten, S., & Schneider, R. R. (2005). Climatic controls on central African hydrology during the past 20,000 years. Nature, 437(7061), 1003–1006.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bogdan, P., Deasy, B. M., Gharaibeh, B., Roehrs, T., & Marculescu, R. (2014). Heterogeneous structure of stem cells dynamics: statistical models and quantitative predictions. Scientific reports, 4, 4826.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bilbao, S. (2005). Wave and Scattering Methods for Numerical Simulation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Rehm, G., & Uszkoreit, H. (Eds.). (2012). The Serbian Language in the Digital Age. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Milovanovic, L. (2016). Medications Used in Interventional Radiology. In S. Athreya (Ed.), Demystifying Interventional Radiology: A Guide for Medical Students (pp. 21–32). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Nonverbal Behavior.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, February 19). Do We Really Need Oxygen For Complex Life? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1984). National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s First-Year Implementation of the Federal Manager’s Financial Integrity Act (No. NSIAD-84-100). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kane, B. H. (2017). A Qualitative Exploratory Inquiry of Communicating in a Multigenerational Traditional-Rational Organization (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011, March 27). Goal for One Team Is Impossible Dream for the Other. New York Times, p. SP10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ricci 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Müller and Schuppert 2011; Ricci 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Müller and Schuppert 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Bogdan et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Nonverbal Behavior
AbbreviationJ. Nonverbal Behav.
ISSN (print)0191-5886
ISSN (online)1573-3653
ScopeSocial Psychology

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