How to format your references using the Journal of Nonverbal Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Nonverbal Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nogrady, B. (2014). Neurobiology: life beyond the pain. Nature, 515(7526), S8-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jung, H., & Karato S. (2001). Water-induced fabric transitions in olivine. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5534), 1460–1463.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ding, W. W., Murray, F., & Stuart, T. E. (2006). Gender differences in patenting in the academic life sciences. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5787), 665–667.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Huang, P., Feng, L., Oldham, E. A., Keating, M. J., & Plunkett, W. (2000). Superoxide dismutase as a target for the selective killing of cancer cells. Nature, 407(6802), 390–395.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Halloran, M., & Thies, C. (2012). The Social Media Handbook for Financial Advisors. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Shiver, W. (2016). 7 Steps to Sales Force Transformation: Driving Sustainable Change in Your Organization. (M. Perla, Ed.). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US.
A chapter in an edited book
Ahlswede, R. (2016). Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems. In A. Ahlswede, I. Althöfer, C. Deppe, & U. Tamm (Eds.), Hiding Data - Selected Topics: Rudolf Ahlswede’s Lectures on Information Theory 3 (pp. 225–336). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Nonverbal Behavior.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 4). Stopping Mangrove Deforestation In Indonesia Could Help Slow Climate Change. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). Broadcast Exclusivity Rules: Effects of Elimination Would Depend on Other Federal Actions and Industry Response (No. GAO-15-441). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davidson, A. O. (2009). Observing action research processes in practice (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M. J. O. (2016, February 19). Ethel M. Smyth, Opera Composer, Met a Chorus of Critical Disdain in 1903. New York Times, p. C27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nogrady 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Jung and Karato S 2001; Nogrady 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jung and Karato S 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Huang et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Nonverbal Behavior
AbbreviationJ. Nonverbal Behav.
ISSN (print)0191-5886
ISSN (online)1573-3653
ScopeSocial Psychology

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