How to format your references using the Journal of Nonverbal Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Nonverbal Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schwille, P. (2011). Bottom-up synthetic biology: engineering in a tinkerer’s world. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6047), 1252–1254.
A journal article with 2 authors
Klein, D. J., & Ferré-D’Amaré, A. R. (2006). Structural basis of glmS ribozyme activation by glucosamine-6-phosphate. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5794), 1752–1756.
A journal article with 3 authors
Copley, A., Avouac, J.-P., & Wernicke, B. P. (2011). Evidence for mechanical coupling and strong Indian lower crust beneath southern Tibet. Nature, 472(7341), 79–81.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gänsicke, B. T., Marsh, T. R., Southworth, J., & Rebassa-Mansergas, A. (2006). A gaseous metal disk around a white dwarf. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5807), 1908–1910.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stafford, F. (2012). Reading Romantic Poetry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gough, S. (Ed.). (2016). Handbook of Incretin-based Therapies in Type 2 Diabetes. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Dong, A., & Kleinsmann, M. (2016). Methods for Studying Collaborative Design Thinking. In P. Cash, T. Stanković, & M. Štorga (Eds.), Experimental Design Research: Approaches, Perspectives, Applications (pp. 83–96). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Nonverbal Behavior.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, February 17). FDA Buries Evidence of Fraud. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). Federal Lands: Survey of Land Managers’ Perspectives of Off-Highway Vehicle Use (GAO-09-547SP, June 2009), an E-supplement to GAO-09-509 (No. GAO-09-547SP). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wolff, A. (2013). PRIDE: A psycho-educational peer support group for LGBTIQ youth: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, October 20). Dodgers Crush Cubs, Winning Pennant for the First Time Since 1988. New York Times, p. B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schwille 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Klein and Ferré-D’Amaré 2006; Schwille 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Klein and Ferré-D’Amaré 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Gänsicke et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Nonverbal Behavior
AbbreviationJ. Nonverbal Behav.
ISSN (print)0191-5886
ISSN (online)1573-3653
ScopeSocial Psychology

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