How to format your references using the Journal of Nonverbal Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Nonverbal Behavior (J Nonverbal Behav). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weydt, P. (2000). Biomedical centre memorial to victims of Nazi research. Nature, 403(6772), 816.
A journal article with 2 authors
Moser, A. L., & Bellan, P. M. (2012). Magnetic reconnection from a multiscale instability cascade. Nature, 482(7385), 379–381.
A journal article with 3 authors
Martinez-Mateo, J., Elkouss, D., & Martin, V. (2013). Key reconciliation for high performance quantum key distribution. Scientific reports, 3, 1576.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Leibfried, D., Barrett, M. D., Schaetz, T., Britton, J., Chiaverini, J., Itano, W. M., et al. (2004). Toward Heisenberg-limited spectroscopy with multiparticle entangled states. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5676), 1476–1478.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lee, W. F. (2005). Verilog Coding for Logic Synthesis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Washio, T., Sakurai, A., Nakajima, K., Takeda, H., Tojo, S., & Yokoo, M. (Eds.). (2006). New Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence: Joint JSAI 2005 Workshop Post-Proceedings (Vol. 4012). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rosling, A., & Littlemore, K. (2011). Improving Student Mental Models in a New University Information Setting. In R. Rikowski (Ed.), Digitisation Perspectives (pp. 89–101). Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Nonverbal Behavior.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, August 15). 10 Weirdest Species of Shark. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Software Licenses: DOD’s Plan to Collect Inventory Data Meets Statutory Requirements (No. GAO-14-625). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Polderman, M. C. (2006). Textile Factories and Subsistence Plots: Rural Women’s Livelihoods and Unique Transition Experiences in Bulgaria (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M. (2017, October 3). With a Little Help From His Friends. New York Times, p. C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Donnelly 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Cyranokski 2004; Kealey 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Moser and Bellan 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Geng et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Nonverbal Behavior
AbbreviationJ. Nonverbal Behav.
ISSN (print)0191-5886
ISSN (online)1573-3653
ScopeSocial Psychology

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