How to format your references using the Journal of Nonverbal Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Nonverbal Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vinge, V. (2000). Win a Nobel prize! Nature, 407(6805), 679.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brucker, R. M., & Bordenstein, S. R. (2013). The hologenomic basis of speciation: gut bacteria cause hybrid lethality in the genus Nasonia. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6146), 667–669.
A journal article with 3 authors
Koskinen, M. T., Haugen, T. O., & Primmer, C. R. (2002). Contemporary fisherian life-history evolution in small salmonid populations. Nature, 419(6909), 826–830.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yamashiro, C., Sasaki, K., Yabuta, Y., Kojima, Y., Nakamura, T., Okamoto, I., et al. (2018). Generation of human oogonia from induced pluripotent stem cells in vitro. Science (New York, N.Y.), 362(6412), 356–360.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yevick, D., & Yevick, H. (2014). Fundamental Math and Physics for Scientists and Engineers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Müller, M. (Ed.). (2016). Clinical Pharmacology: Current Topics and Case Studies (2nd ed. 2016.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Swinburn, B. A. (2014). Why Are Governments Abdicating from Dealing with the Obesity Crisis? In D. W. Haslam, A. M. Sharma, & C. W. le Roux (Eds.), Controversies in Obesity (pp. 23–29). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Nonverbal Behavior.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2015, November 16). Experiment Proves Einstein Wrong. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). GAO Electronic Document Request Service (No. 142758). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilson, B. (2009). Scale effects and the determinants of parcel subdivision: A discrete -time hazard analysis (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2012, September 2). A Heady Nightcap in a City Not Known for Sleeping. New York Times, p. SP5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vinge 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Brucker and Bordenstein 2013; Vinge 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brucker and Bordenstein 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Yamashiro et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Nonverbal Behavior
AbbreviationJ. Nonverbal Behav.
ISSN (print)0191-5886
ISSN (online)1573-3653
ScopeSocial Psychology

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