How to format your references using the Journal of Nonverbal Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Nonverbal Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Delude, C. M. (2015). Deep phenotyping: The details of disease. Nature, 527(7576), S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cho, H.-S., & Leahy, D. J. (2002). Structure of the extracellular region of HER3 reveals an interdomain tether. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5585), 1330–1333.
A journal article with 3 authors
Neves, S. R., Ram, P. T., & Iyengar, R. (2002). G protein pathways. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5573), 1636–1639.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lund, J. M., Hsing, L., Pham, T. T., & Rudensky, A. Y. (2008). Coordination of early protective immunity to viral infection by regulatory T cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5880), 1220–1224.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Norwitz, E. R., Belfort, M. A., Saade, G. R., & Miller, H. (2010). Obstetric Clinical Algorithms: Management and Evidence. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Chbeir, R., & Al Bouna, B. (Eds.). (2013). Security and Privacy Preserving in Social Networks. Vienna: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lee, C.-F., Lee, J., Chang, J.-R., & Tai, T. (2016). Probability Concepts and Their Analysis. In J. Lee, J.-R. Chang, & T. Tai (Eds.), Essentials of Excel, Excel VBA, SAS and Minitab for Statistical and Financial Analyses (pp. 119–144). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Nonverbal Behavior.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, December 23). New Fossil Findings Suggest Color Vision At Least 300 Million-Years-Old. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Guaranty Agency Finances (No. HEHS-96-81R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aggarwal, E. (2012). South Asian women’s attitudes toward help-seeking behaviors (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pear, R., & Kelly, K. (2017, February 28). Trump Concedes Health Overhaul Is a Thorny Task. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Delude 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Cho and Leahy 2002; Delude 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cho and Leahy 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Lund et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Nonverbal Behavior
AbbreviationJ. Nonverbal Behav.
ISSN (print)0191-5886
ISSN (online)1573-3653
ScopeSocial Psychology

Other styles