How to format your references using the Vaccine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vaccine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Madden JD. Mobile robots: motor challenges and materials solutions. Science 2007;318:1094–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rammig A, Mahecha MD. Ecology: Ecosystem responses to climate extremes. Nature 2015;527:315–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sharam GJ, Sinclair ARE, Turkington R. Serengeti birds maintain forests by inhibiting seed predators. Science 2009;325:51.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li D, Bi F-F, Chen N-N, Cao J-M, Sun W-P, Zhou Y-M, et al. A novel crosstalk between BRCA1 and sirtuin 1 in ovarian cancer. Sci Rep 2014;4:6666.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Naini FB. Facial Aesthetics. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2011.
An edited book
Luo ACJ, Sun J-Q, editors. Complex Systems: Fractionality, Time-delay and Synchronization. vol. 0. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Shi J, Cheng L, Gershon ES, Liu C. G72/G30 in Neuropsychiatric Disorders. In: Lajtha A, Javitt D, Kantrowitz J, editors. Handbook of Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology: Schizophrenia, Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009, p. 91–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vaccine.

Blog post
Davis J. California Set To Give Solar Panels To Low-Income Families For Free. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Total Quality Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Malekian A. Combinatorial problems in online advertising. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M. ‘The Third Tenor’ Exits. New York Times 2017:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVaccine
ISSN (print)0264-410X
ScopeMolecular Medicine
General Immunology and Microbiology
Infectious Diseases
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
General Veterinary

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