How to format your references using the Vaccine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vaccine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Service RF. Structural biology. Protein structure initiative: phase 3 or phase out. Science 2008;319:1610–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tang S, Guo A. Choice behavior of Drosophila facing contradictory visual cues. Science 2001;294:1543–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Capraro V, Jordan JJ, Rand DG. Heuristics guide the implementation of social preferences in one-shot Prisoner’s Dilemma experiments. Sci Rep 2014;4:6790.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Samad TA, Moore KA, Sapirstein A, Billet S, Allchorne A, Poole S, et al. Interleukin-1beta-mediated induction of Cox-2 in the CNS contributes to inflammatory pain hypersensitivity. Nature 2001;410:471–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Geisser S. Modes of Parametric Statistical Inference: Geisser/Modes of Parametric Statistical Inference. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Kamkim A, Kiseleva I, editors. Mechanosensitivity of the Nervous System: Forewords by Nektarios Tavernarakis and Pontus Persson. vol. 2. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Shen G, Zhang Y. Power Consumption Constrained Task Scheduling Using Enhanced Genetic Algorithms. In: Khan SU, Kołodziej J, Li J, Zomaya AY, editors. Evolutionary Based Solutions for Green Computing, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013, p. 139–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vaccine.

Blog post
Andrews R. World’s Ten Most Dangerous Volcanoes Identified. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Denver International Airport: Baggage Handling, Contracting, and Other Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mathus MA. The Relationship between Teacher Evaluation Ratings and Student Achievement in a Rural, Midwest School District. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Astros Even It Up in Home Run Derby. New York Times 2017:B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVaccine
ISSN (print)0264-410X
ScopeMolecular Medicine
General Immunology and Microbiology
Infectious Diseases
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
General Veterinary

Other styles