How to format your references using the Vaccine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vaccine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jayawardhana R. Astronomy. Unraveling brown dwarf origins. Science 2004;303:322–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Conte MH, Weber JC. Plant biomarkers in aerosols record isotopic discrimination of terrestrial photosynthesis. Nature 2002;417:639–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
Keppler H, Wiedenbeck M, Shcheka SS. Carbon solubility in olivine and the mode of carbon storage in the Earth’s mantle. Nature 2003;424:414–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Deb SK, Wilding M, Somayazulu M, McMillan PF. Pressure-induced amorphization and an amorphous-amorphous transition in densified porous silicon. Nature 2001;414:528–30.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bradford R. Is Shakespeare Any Good? Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Meyers MA. Meyers’ Dynamic Radiology of the Abdomen: Normal and Pathologic Anatomy. 6th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Backlund PS, Yergey AL. Mass Spectrometry for Studying Protein Modifications and for Discovery of Protein Interactions. In: Schuck P, editor. Protein Interactions: Biophysical Approaches for the Study of Complex Reversible Systems, Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007, p. 143–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vaccine.

Blog post
Hamilton K. A Possible Alternative To Morphine – Inspired By Spit. IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Potential Problems That Should Be Considered in Evaluating the Experimental Technology Incentives Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bergemann E. Exploring psychotherapist empathic attunement from a psychoneurobiological perspective: Is empathy enhanced by yoga and meditation? Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
La GORCE T. For This Couple, It’s Death Till They Part. New York Times 2017:ST14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVaccine
ISSN (print)0264-410X
ScopeMolecular Medicine
General Immunology and Microbiology
Infectious Diseases
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
General Veterinary

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