How to format your references using the Economic Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economic Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Landsea, C.W., 2005. Meteorology: hurricanes and global warming. Nature 438, E11-2; discussion E13.
A journal article with 2 authors
Domokos, G., Scheuring, I., 2002. Random perturbations and lattice effects in chaotic population dynamics. Science 297, 2163; discussion 2163.
A journal article with 3 authors
Peters, A.J., Chen, S.X., Komiyama, T., 2014. Emergence of reproducible spatiotemporal activity during motor learning. Nature 510, 263–267.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, Q., Li, G., Rhodes, D., Kiswandhi, A., Besara, T., Zeng, B., Sun, J., Siegrist, T., Johannes, M.D., Balicas, L., 2013. Superconductivity with extremely large upper critical fields in Nb2Pd0.81S5. Sci. Rep. 3, 1446.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Raj, P.P., Erdine, S., 2012. Pain-Relieving Procedures. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Juels, A., Paar, C. (Eds.), 2012. RFID. Security and Privacy: 7th International Workshop, RFIDSec 2011, Amherst, USA, June 26-28, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Stein, J.K., 2008. Geoarchaeology and Archaeostratigraphy View from a Northwest Coast Shell Midden, in: Reitz, E.J., Scudder, S.J., Scarry, C.M. (Eds.), Case Studies in Environmental Archaeology, Interdisciplinary Contributions to Archaeology. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 61–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economic Systems.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2017. Scientists Shouldn’t Be Too Scared Of The Public When Discussing Climate Change [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1987. National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Planned Use of Information Technology for the Space Station (No. T-IMTEC-87-5). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reehal, G., 2012. Designing Low Power and High Performance Network-on-Chip Communication Architectures for Nanometer SoCs (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Liogier, R., 2017. France’s neither-nor election. New York Times 0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Landsea, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Domokos and Scheuring, 2002; Landsea, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Domokos and Scheuring, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomic Systems
ISSN (print)0939-3625
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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