How to format your references using the Economic Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economic Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Degen, M., 2003. Science has flourished in eastern Germany since reunification, bringing researchers from far and near. But the tide of investment may be turning. Nature 423, 204–205.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sinha, D.K., Smith, C.M., 2014. Selection of reference genes for expression analysis in Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae) fed on resistant and susceptible wheat plants. Sci. Rep. 4, 5059.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nandal, P., Ravella, S.R., Kuhad, R.C., 2013. Laccase production by Coriolopsis caperata RCK2011: optimization under solid state fermentation by Taguchi DOE methodology. Sci. Rep. 3, 1386.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Campbell, M., Sharp, D.N., Harrison, M.T., Denning, R.G., Turberfield, A.J., 2000. Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography. Nature 404, 53–56.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vaughan, D., Robinson, N., Lucas, N., Arulkumaran, S., 2010. Handbook of Obstetric High Dependency Care. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Bourgeois, A.G., Zheng, S.Q. (Eds.), 2008. Algorithms and Architectures for Parallel Processing: 8th International Conference, ICA3PP 2008, Cyprus, June 9-11, 2008 Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Paireekreng, W., Rapeepisarn, K., Wong, K.W., 2009. Time-Based Personalised Mobile Game Downloading, in: Pan, Z., Cheok, A.D., Müller, W., Rhalibi, A.E. (Eds.), Transactions on Edutainment II, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 59–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economic Systems.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2016. Animals Inherit Their Mother’s Social Network [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2011. Space Research: Content and Coordination of Space Science and Technology Strategy Need to Be More Robust (No. GAO-11-722). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koh, S.A., 2010. A comparison of treatment integrity assessment methods for behavioral intervention (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
LaFRANIERE, S., Palmer, E., 2016. In 130 of Worst Shootings, Vision of Porous Gun Laws. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Degen, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Degen, 2003; Sinha and Smith, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sinha and Smith, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Campbell et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomic Systems
ISSN (print)0939-3625
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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