How to format your references using the Economic Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economic Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Johns-Krull, C.M., 2014. Astrophysics: Secret ingredient exposed. Nature 514, 571–572.
A journal article with 2 authors
Desai, M.M., Walczak, A.M., 2015. Microbiology. Flexible gene pools. Science 348, 977–978.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aminetzach, Y.T., Macpherson, J.M., Petrov, D.A., 2005. Pesticide resistance via transposition-mediated adaptive gene truncation in Drosophila. Science 309, 764–767.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Beaugrand, G., Reid, P.C., Ibañez, F., Lindley, J.A., Edwards, M., 2002. Reorganization of North Atlantic marine copepod biodiversity and climate. Science 296, 1692–1694.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schwartz, R.A., Carew, M.G., Maksimenko, T., 2010. Micro Markets. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Evans, N., 2015. A Systematic Review of Rural Development Research: Characteristics, Design Quality and Engagement with Sustainability, SpringerBriefs in Public Health. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
van Kolck, U., 2014. Effective Field Theories of Loosely Bound Nuclei, in: Scheidenberger, C., Pfützner, M. (Eds.), The Euroschool on Exotic Beams, Vol. IV, Lecture Notes in Physics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 123–182.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economic Systems.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. 3D Printer Makes Prosthetic Foot For Duck [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. ADP Acquisition: Naval Aviation Logistics Command Management Information System (No. IMTEC-89-21FS). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moore, J., 2012. Recall after conscious sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures and its effect on patient satisfaction (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwirtz, M., Winerip, M., Gebeloff, R., 2016. The Scourge of Racial Bias in New York State’s Prisons. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Johns-Krull, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Desai and Walczak, 2015; Johns-Krull, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Desai and Walczak, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Beaugrand et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomic Systems
ISSN (print)0939-3625
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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