How to format your references using the Economic Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economic Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fine, C., 2014. Neuroscience. His brain, her brain? Science 346, 915–916.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sergienko, O.V., Hindmarsh, R.C.A., 2013. Regular patterns in frictional resistance of ice-stream beds seen by surface data inversion. Science 342, 1086–1089.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rees, M., Koppelman, B., Davison, N., 2010. Scientific steps to nuclear disarmament. Nature 465, 290–291.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kumamoto, Y., Aoyama, M., Hamajima, Y., Aono, T., Kouketsu, S., Murata, A., Kawano, T., 2014. Southward spreading of the Fukushima-derived radiocesium across the Kuroshio Extension in the North Pacific. Sci. Rep. 4, 4276.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pevsner, J., 2005. Bioinformatics and Functional Genomics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Dervin, F., Ragnarsdóttir, H. (Eds.), 2014. Origins: A Sustainable Concept in Education, Transgressions, Cultural Studies and Education. SensePublishers, Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Takashima, K., 2008. Efficiently Computable Distortion Maps for Supersingular Curves, in: Poorten, A.J. van der, Stein, A. (Eds.), Algorithmic Number Theory: 8th International Symposium, ANTS-VIII Banff, Canada, May 17-22, 2008 Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 88–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economic Systems.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2017. Study Linking “Everyday Chemicals” To Cancer Has Been Completely Misrepresented [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2004. No Child Left Behind Act: Additional Assistance and Research on Effective Strategies Would Help Small Rural Districts (No. GAO-04-909). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barrios, G., 2012. Outreach program to address the unmet needs of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M.D., Haberman, M., 2017. Friend Suggests Trump May Fire Special Counsel. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fine, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Fine, 2014; Sergienko and Hindmarsh, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sergienko and Hindmarsh, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Kumamoto et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomic Systems
ISSN (print)0939-3625
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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