How to format your references using the Economic Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economic Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jorgensen, W.L., 2004. The many roles of computation in drug discovery. Science 303, 1813–1818.
A journal article with 2 authors
Egnatchik, R.A., DeBerardinis, R.J., 2015. Metabolism: Growth in the fat lane. Nature 520, 165–166.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fried, S.D., Bagchi, S., Boxer, S.G., 2014. Extreme electric fields power catalysis in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase. Science 346, 1510–1514.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Xiao, J., Long, M., Li, X., Xu, H., Huang, H., Gao, Y., 2014. Theoretical prediction of electronic structure and carrier mobility in single-walled MoS₂ nanotubes. Sci. Rep. 4, 4327.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abraham, A., 2012. The Trend Following Bible. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Doerffer, P., 2011. Unsteady Effects of Shock Wave Induced Separation, Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary Design. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Martin, A.J., 2015. Are These Testing Times, or Is It a Time to Test? Considering the Place of Tests in Students’ Academic Development, in: Proctor, H., Brownlee, P., Freebody, P. (Eds.), Controversies in Education: Orthodoxy and Heresy in Policy and Practice. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 55–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economic Systems.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2017. Galactic Alignment Happened Just After The Dawn Of The Universe [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Transportation and Telecommunications Reports and Testimony: May 1992 - April 1993 (No. RCED-93-187). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hansell, L., 2017. Perceptions of Supervisor Ethical Behavior by Psychology Interns (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Slater, K., 2010. Quotation of the Day. New York Times A3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jorgensen, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Egnatchik and DeBerardinis, 2015; Jorgensen, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Egnatchik and DeBerardinis, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Xiao et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomic Systems
ISSN (print)0939-3625
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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