How to format your references using the Economic Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economic Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wellman, B., 2001. Computer networks as social networks. Science 293, 2031–2034.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mel’nikov, A.S., Vinokur, V.M., 2002. Mesoscopic superconductor as a ballistic quantum switch. Nature 415, 60–62.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhu, B.O., Zhao, J., Feng, Y., 2013. Active impedance metasurface with full 360° reflection phase tuning. Sci. Rep. 3, 3059.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Short, P.J., McRae, J.F., Gallone, G., Sifrim, A., Won, H., Geschwind, D.H., Wright, C.F., Firth, H.V., FitzPatrick, D.R., Barrett, J.C., Hurles, M.E., 2018. De novo mutations in regulatory elements in neurodevelopmental disorders. Nature 555, 611–616.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bartley, T., 2011. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Cancer. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Královič, R., Niwiński, D. (Eds.), 2009. Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science 2009: 34th International Symposium, MFCS 2009, Novy Smokovec, High Tatras, Slovakia, August 24-28, 2009. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Hauschild, W., Lemke, E., 2014. Partial Discharge Measurement, in: Lemke, E. (Ed.), High-Voltage Test and Measuring Techniques. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 157–231.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economic Systems.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Brain images reveal how we distinguish real and fake laughter [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2009. Commercial Space Transportation: Development of the Commercial Space Launch Industry Presents Safety Oversight Challenges for FAA and Raises Issues Affecting Federal Roles (No. GAO-10-286T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ahn, M., 2017. Student Perception of Language Achievement and Learner Autonomy in a Blended Korean Language Course: The Case Study of Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2007. Elizabeth Taylor To Keep Van Gogh. New York Times E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wellman, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Mel’nikov and Vinokur, 2002; Wellman, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mel’nikov and Vinokur, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Short et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomic Systems
ISSN (print)0939-3625
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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