How to format your references using the Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A.P. Hatzes, The role of space telescopes in the characterization of transiting exoplanets, Nature. 513 (2014) 353–357.
A journal article with 2 authors
Y.E. Türkmen, V.K. Aggarwal, A simpler route for making nitrogen-alkene rings. [corrected], Science. 343 (2014) 33–34.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.H. Fowler, T. Johnson, O. Smirnov, Human behaviour: Egalitarian motive and altruistic punishment, Nature. 433 (2005) 1 p following 32; discussion following 32.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
B.C. Schroeder, S. Waldegger, S. Fehr, M. Bleich, R. Warth, R. Greger, T.J. Jentsch, A constitutively open potassium channel formed by KCNQ1 and KCNE3, Nature. 403 (2000) 196–199.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M.R. Chernick, The Essentials of Biostatistics for Physicians, Nurses, and Clinicians, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
M. Jeusfeld, L. Delcambre, T.-W. Ling, eds., Conceptual Modeling – ER 2011: 30th International Conference, ER 2011, Brussels, Belgium, October 31 - November 3, 2011. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
N. Neythalath, M. Brandstötter, M. Hofbaur, Redundancy Resolution of a 9 DOF Serial Manipulator Under Hard Task Constraints, in: V. Parenti-Castelli, W. Schiehlen (Eds.), ROMANSY 21 - Robot Design, Dynamics and Control: Proceedings of the 21st CISM-IFToMM Symposium, June 20-23, Udine, Italy, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 31–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Some Stars Are Dying Puzzlingly Young, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Information Resources: HCFA Must Better Justify Further Data Center Expansion, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.A. Eisenberg, Effectiveness of an eel curriculum on student achievement for the California earth science standard on ocean currents A comparative analysis, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
R. Lyman, M.W. Walsh, A City Borrows So Its Schools Open on Time, New York Times. (2013) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures
AbbreviationPhysica E Low Dimens. Syst. Nanostruct.
ISSN (print)1386-9477
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles