How to format your references using the Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C.K. Ober, Self-assembly. Persistence pays off, Science. 296 (2002) 859–861.
A journal article with 2 authors
B.M. Gardner, P. Walter, Unfolded proteins are Ire1-activating ligands that directly induce the unfolded protein response, Science. 333 (2011) 1891–1894.
A journal article with 3 authors
D.A. Wardle, L.R. Walker, R.D. Bardgett, Ecosystem properties and forest decline in contrasting long-term chronosequences, Science. 305 (2004) 509–513.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Tang, E.M. Lennon, G.H. Fredrickson, E.J. Kramer, C.J. Hawker, Evolution of block copolymer lithography to highly ordered square arrays, Science. 322 (2008) 429–432.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C.E. Nash, The History of Aquaculture, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2011.
An edited book
A. Delle Fave, Psychological Selection and Optimal Experience Across Cultures: Social Empowerment through Personal Growth, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Gulbrandsen, Internationalisation of Industrial R&D, in: Å. Gornitzka, L. Langfeldt (Eds.), Borderless Knowledge: Understanding the “New” Internationalisation of Research and Higher Education in Norway, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2008: pp. 51–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures.

Blog post
E. Andrew, New Diagnostic Platform Can Detect Over 1,000 Pathogens In Just 6 Hours, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Aviation Administration: Agency Is Taking Steps to Plan for and Train Its Technician Workforce, but a More Strategic Approach Is Warranted, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. Nguyen, A psychoeducational support group for Vietnamese American family caregivers of stroke survivors: Grant writing thesis proposal, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, Healing and Burnout, 12 Hours at a Stretch, New York Times. (2001) 152.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures
AbbreviationPhysica E Low Dimens. Syst. Nanostruct.
ISSN (print)1386-9477
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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