How to format your references using the Utilities Policy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Utilities Policy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marx, V., 2014. Cancer treatment: Sharp shooters. Nature 508, 133–138.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fujii, M.S., Portegies Zwart, S., 2011. The origin of OB runaway stars. Science 334, 1380–1383.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gilchrist, A., Resch, K.J., White, A.G., 2007. Quantum information: source of triggered entangled photon pairs? Nature 445, E4-5; discussion E5-6.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gandal, M.J., Haney, J.R., Parikshak, N.N., Leppa, V., Ramaswami, G., Hartl, C., Schork, A.J., Appadurai, V., Buil, A., Werge, T.M., Liu, C., White, K.P., CommonMind Consortium, PsychENCODE Consortium, iPSYCH-BROAD Working Group, Horvath, S., Geschwind, D.H., 2018. Shared molecular neuropathology across major psychiatric disorders parallels polygenic overlap. Science 359, 693–697.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Forshaw, M., 2006. Understanding Headaches and Migraines. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Zelinka, I., Duy, V.H., Cha, J. (Eds.), 2014. AETA 2013: Recent Advances in Electrical Engineering and Related Sciences, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Canale, D., 2009. The Many Faces of the Codification of Law in Modern Continental Europe, in: Pattaro, E., Canale, D., Grossi, P., Hofmann, H., Riley, P. (Eds.), A Treatise of Legal Philosophy and General Jurisprudence: Vol. 9: A History of the Philosophy of Law in the Civil Law World, 1600-1900; Vol. 10: The Philosophers’ Philosophy of Law from the Seventeenth Century to Our Days. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 135–183.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Utilities Policy.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2015. Here’s What Ursula Would Look Like If She Had Evolved In Different Ocean Environments [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1970. Allowances for Independent Research and Development Costs in Negotiated Contracts (No. 094459). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thom, R.R., 2008. Beyond the numbers: A phenomenological study of intangible assets for small manufacturing business valuation (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L., 2007. New Life Is Sought for ‘American Venice.’ New York Times LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marx, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Fujii and Portegies Zwart, 2011; Marx, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fujii and Portegies Zwart, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Gandal et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleUtilities Policy
ISSN (print)0957-1787
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Sociology and Political Science

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