How to format your references using the Ergonomics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ergonomics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schönenberger, Christian. 2013. “Physics. Two Indistinguishable Electrons Interfere in an Electronic Device.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 339 (6123): 1041–1042.
A journal article with 2 authors
Muotri, Alysson R., and Fred H. Gage. 2006. “Generation of Neuronal Variability and Complexity.” Nature 441 (7097): 1087–1093.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lamas-Linares, A., J. C. Howell, and D. Bouwmeester. 2001. “Stimulated Emission of Polarization-Entangled Photons.” Nature 412 (6850): 887–890.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Roberts, James M., Hans D. Osthoff, Steven S. Brown, and A. R. Ravishankara. 2008. “N2O5 Oxidizes Chloride to Cl2 in Acidic Atmospheric Aerosol.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 321 (5892): 1059.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Snape, Steven. 2011. Ancient Egyptian Tombs. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Li, Zhan-Ting, and Li-Zhu Wu, eds. 2015. Hydrogen Bonded Supramolecular Materials. Vol. 88. Lecture Notes in Chemistry. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ding, Jintai, and Bo-Yin Yang. 2013. “Degree of Regularity for HFEv and HFEv-.” In Post-Quantum Cryptography: 5th International Workshop, PQCrypto 2013, Limoges, France, June 4-7, 2013. Proceedings, edited by Philippe Gaborit, 52–66. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ergonomics.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2015. “This Church Has A Chandelier Made Entirely Of Human Bones.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. Small Business Administration: Status of Mandated Planning for Loan Monitoring System. AIMD-00-105R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kuqi, Kushtrim. 2013. “A Matrix-Based Method for Optimizing the User Interface Design of Electronic Medical Record Systems.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Quain, John R. 2016. “When a Sound System Can Mean Life or Death.” New York Times, November 10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schönenberger 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Schönenberger 2013; Muotri and Gage 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Muotri and Gage 2006)
  • Three authors: (Lamas-Linares, Howell, and Bouwmeester 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Roberts et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleErgonomics
ISSN (print)0014-0139
ISSN (online)1366-5847
ScopeHuman Factors and Ergonomics
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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