How to format your references using the Ergonomics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ergonomics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schilling, G. 2000. “Sloan Digital Sky Survey. A Hundred Million Points of Light.” Nature 407 (6804): 557.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stoeckle, Mark Y., and Cameron Coffran. 2013. “TreeParser-Aided Klee Diagrams Display Taxonomic Clusters in DNA Barcode and Nuclear Gene Datasets.” Scientific Reports 3: 2635.
A journal article with 3 authors
Immerzeel, Walter W., Ludovicus P. H. van Beek, and Marc F. P. Bierkens. 2010. “Climate Change Will Affect the Asian Water Towers.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 328 (5984): 1382–1385.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Choi, Seung Hee, Do Young Hyeon, Ll Hwan Lee, Su Jin Park, Seungmin Han, In Chul Lee, Daehee Hwang, and Hong Gil Nam. 2014. “Gene Duplication of Type-B ARR Transcription Factors Systematically Extends Transcriptional Regulatory Structures in Arabidopsis.” Scientific Reports 4 (November): 7197.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. 2003. Guidelines for Investigating Chemical Process Incidents. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ghatol, Rohit. 2012. Beginning PhoneGap: Mobile Web Framework for JavaScript and HTML5. Edited by Yogesh Patel. Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Gordon, Wade T. 2014. “Foot and Ankle Injuries.” In Front Line Extremity and Orthopaedic Surgery: A Practical Guide, edited by Lawrence B. Bone and Christiaan N. Mamczak, 43–50. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ergonomics.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Dolphins Form Complex Social Networks.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2010. K-12 Education: Many Challenges Arise in Educating Students Who Change Schools Frequently. GAO-11-40. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mullican, Carey D. 2012. “Multiple Intelligences in the Text: Examining the Presence of Multiple Intelligences Tasks in the Annotated Teacher’s Editions of Four High School United States History Textbooks.” Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lanchester, John. 2016. “What the West Can Learn From Japan About the Cultural Value of Work.” New York Times, December 13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schilling 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Schilling 2000; Stoeckle and Coffran 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stoeckle and Coffran 2013)
  • Three authors: (Immerzeel, van Beek, and Bierkens 2010)
  • 4 or more authors: (Choi et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleErgonomics
ISSN (print)0014-0139
ISSN (online)1366-5847
ScopeHuman Factors and Ergonomics
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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