How to format your references using the Ergonomics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ergonomics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Russell, Michael John. 2003. “Geochemistry. The Importance of Being Alkaline.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 302 (5645): 580–581.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fisher, Heidi S., and Hopi E. Hoekstra. 2010. “Competition Drives Cooperation among Closely Related Sperm of Deer Mice.” Nature 463 (7282): 801–803.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xiao, Shuhai, Chuanming Zhou, and Xunlai Yuan. 2007. “Palaeontology: Undressing and Redressing Ediacaran Embryos.” Nature 446 (7136): E9-10; discussion E10-1.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Whittaker, J. M., R. D. Müller, G. Leitchenkov, H. Stagg, M. Sdrolias, C. Gaina, and A. Goncharov. 2007. “Major Australian-Antarctic Plate Reorganization at Hawaiian-Emperor Bend Time.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 318 (5847): 83–86.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wartenberg, Thomas E. 2013. A Sneetch Is a Sneetch and Other Philosophical Discoveries. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Tan, Ying, Yuhui Shi, and Kay Chen Tan, eds. 2010. Advances in Swarm Intelligence: First International Conference, ICSI 2010, Beijing, China, June 12-15, 2010, Proceedings, Part II. Vol. 6146. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Osaba, Eneko, Roberto Carballedo, Fernando Diaz, Enrique Onieva, and Asier Perallos. 2014. “A Proposal of Good Practice in the Formulation and Comparison of Meta-Heuristics for Solving Routing Problems.” In International Joint Conference SOCO’14-CISIS’14-ICEUTE’14: Bilbao, Spain, June 25th-27th, 2014, Proceedings, edited by José Gaviria de la Puerta, Iván García Ferreira, Pablo Garcia Bringas, Fanny Klett, Ajith Abraham, André C. P. L. F. de Carvalho, Álvaro Herrero, Bruno Baruque, Héctor Quintián, and Emilio Corchado, 31–40. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ergonomics.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “What Are Fundamental Particles?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. Budgetary Implications of IRS’ Tax System Modernization and Automated Examination System Efforts. T-IMTEC-89-4. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hendry, Marie. 2014. “The Lonely Nineteenth Century: Loneliness and the Female Protagonist in the Victorian Novel.” Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dwyer, Jim. 2015. “A Police Shot to a Boy’s Back, Echoing Since ’73.” New York Times, April 17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Russell 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Russell 2003; Fisher and Hoekstra 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fisher and Hoekstra 2010)
  • Three authors: (Xiao, Zhou, and Yuan 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Whittaker et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleErgonomics
ISSN (print)0014-0139
ISSN (online)1366-5847
ScopeHuman Factors and Ergonomics
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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