How to format your references using the Ergonomics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ergonomics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bowie, James U. 2005. “Solving the Membrane Protein Folding Problem.” Nature 438 (7068): 581–589.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tsuji, Kaori, and Kiichiro Tsutani. 2008. “Follow the Leader.” Nature 453 (7197): 851–852.
A journal article with 3 authors
Newell, Richard G., William A. Pizer, and Daniel Raimi. 2014. “Environmental Economics. Carbon Market Lessons and Global Policy Outlook.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 343 (6177): 1316–1317.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Singh, Sanjay K., Mohamedi N. Kagalwala, Jan Parker-Thornburg, Henry Adams, and Sadhan Majumder. 2008. “REST Maintains Self-Renewal and Pluripotency of Embryonic Stem Cells.” Nature 453 (7192): 223–227.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bertau, Martin, Armin Müller, Peter Fröhlich, and Michael Katzberg. 2013. Industrielle Anorganische Chemie. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Athreya, Sriharsha, ed. 2016. Demystifying Interventional Radiology: A Guide for Medical Students. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Biolek, Dalibor, and Zdenek Biolek. 2014. “Fourth Fundamental Circuit Element: SPICE Modeling and Simulation.” In Memristors and Memristive Systems, edited by Ronald Tetzlaff, 105–162. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ergonomics.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Shooting An AK-47 Under Water.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Federal Research: Changes in Electricity-Related R&D Funding. RCED-96-203. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Albrinck, Bradford Michael. 2010. “An Exploratory Study of Urban Transportation and Air Quality Issues Using CO as an Indicator.” Doctoral dissertation, Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feuer, Alan, and William K. Rashbaum. 2017. “Family Past Heightens Enigma of Judge’s Death.” New York Times, April 13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bowie 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Bowie 2005; Tsuji and Tsutani 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tsuji and Tsutani 2008)
  • Three authors: (Newell, Pizer, and Raimi 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Singh et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleErgonomics
ISSN (print)0014-0139
ISSN (online)1366-5847
ScopeHuman Factors and Ergonomics
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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