How to format your references using the Ergonomics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ergonomics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schmidt, Brian. 2014. “Perspective: If Not Funding Then Teaching.” Nature 511 (7510): S81.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rambo, Robert P., and John A. Tainer. 2013. “Accurate Assessment of Mass, Models and Resolution by Small-Angle Scattering.” Nature 496 (7446): 477–481.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, Cheng-Yu, Kristin J. Robinson, and Chris Q. Doe. 2006. “Lgl, Pins and APKC Regulate Neuroblast Self-Renewal versus Differentiation.” Nature 439 (7076): 594–598.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Takemaru, Ken-Ichi, Shinji Yamaguchi, Young Sik Lee, Yang Zhang, Richard W. Carthew, and Randall T. Moon. 2003. “Chibby, a Nuclear Beta-Catenin-Associated Antagonist of the Wnt/Wingless Pathway.” Nature 422 (6934): 905–909.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nova, Roberto. 2013. Soil Mechanics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Trobec, Roman. 2015. Parallel Scientific Computing: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications of Mesh Based and Meshless Methods. Edited by Gregor Kosec. SpringerBriefs in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Quarteroni, Alfio, Riccardo Sacco, Fausto Saleri, and Paola Gervasio. 2014. “Approssimazione Di Autovalori e Autovettori.” In Matematica Numerica, edited by Riccardo Sacco, Fausto Saleri, and Paola Gervasio, 165–214. UNITEXT. Milano: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ergonomics.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. “Over 9,000 Women In Science Rally To Fight Hate Given Voice Following US Election.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1969. Federal Support for Research and Education: Costs and Benefits. 091170. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Marshall, Laura Delano. 2015. “The Jeweled Net, Sacred Landscape, and the Vision of the Heart.” Doctoral dissertation, Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2010. “Tuning Up to Do the Super Bowl Shovel.” New York Times, December 28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schmidt 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Schmidt 2014; Rambo and Tainer 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rambo and Tainer 2013)
  • Three authors: (Lee, Robinson, and Doe 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Takemaru et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleErgonomics
ISSN (print)0014-0139
ISSN (online)1366-5847
ScopeHuman Factors and Ergonomics
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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