How to format your references using the Ergonomics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ergonomics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Patterson, David J. 2009. “Ecology. Seeing the Big Picture on Microbe Distribution.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 325 (5947): 1506–1507.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zatorre, Robert, and James McGill. 2005. “Music, the Food of Neuroscience?” Nature 434 (7031): 312–315.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, Y. C., T. H. Cheng, and M. R. Gartenberg. 2001. “Establishment of Transcriptional Silencing in the Absence of DNA Replication.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 291 (5504): 650–653.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Mindell, J. A., M. Maduke, C. Miller, and N. Grigorieff. 2001. “Projection Structure of a ClC-Type Chloride Channel at 6.5 A Resolution.” Nature 409 (6817): 219–223.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
El Hami, Abdelkhalak, and Bouchaïb Radi. 2013. Uncertainty and Optimization in Structural Mechanics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cleland, Ian, Luis Guerrero, and José Bravo, eds. 2015. Ambient Assisted Living. ICT-Based Solutions in Real Life Situations: 7th International Work-Conference, IWAAL 2015, Puerto Varas, Chile, December 1-4, 2015, Proceedings. 1st ed. 2015. Vol. 9455. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Tabu, Kouichi, Norihisa Bizen, Tetsuya Taga, and Shinya Tanaka. 2013. “Gene Regulation of Prominin-1 (CD133) in Normal and Cancerous Tissues.” In Prominin-1 (CD133): New Insights on Stem & Cancer Stem Cell Biology, edited by Denis Corbeil, 73–85. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ergonomics.

Blog post
Carpineti, Chris. 2017. “This Sponge-Like Material Soaks Up 90x Its Weight In Oil.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2012. Telecommunications: FCC Has Reformed the High-Cost Program, but Oversight and Management Could Be Improved. GAO-12-738. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilson, Melissa B. 2009. “Constructions of Childhood Found in Award -Winning Children’s Literature.” Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barker, Kim, and Kate Taylor. 2014. “A Teacher Accused of Abuse Seen to Have Never Grown Up.” New York Times, October 10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Patterson 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Patterson 2009; Zatorre and McGill 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zatorre and McGill 2005)
  • Three authors: (Li, Cheng, and Gartenberg 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Mindell et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleErgonomics
ISSN (print)0014-0139
ISSN (online)1366-5847
ScopeHuman Factors and Ergonomics
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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