How to format your references using the Global Change Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Change Biology (GCB). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Waters, A. P. (2003). Parasitology. Guilty until proven otherwise. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5639), 1487–1488.
A journal article with 2 authors
Simpson, S. J., & Travis, J. (2007). Testing our defenses. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5838), 611.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhuang, J., Yu, G.-R., & Nakayama, K. (2014). A series RCL circuit theory for analyzing non-steady-state water uptake of maize plants. Scientific Reports, 4, 6720.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, W., Black, S. S., Edwards, M. D., Miller, S., Morrison, E. L., Bartlett, W., Dong, C., Naismith, J. H., & Booth, I. R. (2008). The structure of an open form of an E. coli mechanosensitive channel at 3.45 A resolution. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5893), 1179–1183.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scott, D. W. (2008). Color Atlas of Farm Animal Dermatology. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Strate, J. (2012). Expert Performance Indexing for SQL Server 2012 (T. Krueger, Ed.). Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Fatemi, S. H., & Folsom, T. D. (2011). Prenatal Viral Infection in Mouse: An Animal Model of Schizophrenia. In J. D. Clelland (Ed.), Genomics, Proteomics, and the Nervous System (pp. 113–136). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Change Biology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, February 5). Earliest Stars 150 Million Years Older Than Previously Believed. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). DOD Business Systems Modernization: Additional Action Needed to Achieve Intended Outcomes (GAO-15-627). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mills, A. D. (2016). Strategic school solutions: A capacity building framework for leaders accelerating 21st century teaching and learning [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee, L. (2009, September 17). Low-Upkeep Gardens, but Not Dirt Cheap. New York Times, D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Waters, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Simpson & Travis, 2007; Waters, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Simpson & Travis, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Zhuang et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wang et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Change Biology
AbbreviationGlob. Chang. Biol.
ISSN (print)1354-1013
ISSN (online)1365-2486
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science
Environmental Chemistry
Global and Planetary Change

Other styles