How to format your references using the Global Change Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Change Biology (GCB). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dainton, M. (2001). Palaeoanthropology: Did our ancestors knuckle-walk? Nature, 410(6826), 324–325; disussion 326.
A journal article with 2 authors
Silk, J., & Chluba, J. (2014). Astronomy. Next steps for cosmology. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6184), 586–588.
A journal article with 3 authors
George, A. M., Iñiguez, J., & Bellaiche, L. (2001). Anomalous properties in ferroelectrics induced by atomic ordering. Nature, 413(6851), 54–57.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hwang, D., Kim, D. Y., Jo, S. M., Armel, V., MacFarlane, D. R., Kim, D., & Jang, S.-Y. (2013). Highly efficient plastic crystal ionic conductors for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Scientific Reports, 3, 3520.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Müller, G., & Ponick, B. (2005). Grundlagen elektrischer Maschinen. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Papadopoulos, G. A., Wojtkowski, W., Wojtkowski, G., Wrycza, S., & Zupancic, J. (Eds.). (2010). Information Systems Development: Towards a Service Provision Society. Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Pedersen, A., Berthet, J.-C., & Jónsson, H. (2012). Simulated Annealing with Coarse Graining and Distributed Computing. In K. Jónasson (Ed.), Applied Parallel and Scientific Computing: 10th International Conference, PARA 2010, Reykjavík, Iceland, June 6-9, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Part II (pp. 34–44). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Change Biology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016, November 25). Apollo Computer Engineer Margaret Hamilton Awarded Presidential Medal Of Freedom. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Intercollegiate Athletics: Revenues and Expenses, Gender and Minority Profiles, and Compensation in Athletic Departments (T-HRD-92-25). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mauger, G. S. (2008). Synoptic sensitivities of subtropical clouds: Separating aerosol effects from meteorology [Doctoral dissertation]. University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J. C., Jr. (2017, August 15). 21 Years After Businessman’s Murder, His Wife and Her Brother Are Arrested. New York Times, A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dainton, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Dainton, 2001; Silk & Chluba, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Silk & Chluba, 2014)
  • Three authors: (George et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Hwang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Change Biology
AbbreviationGlob. Chang. Biol.
ISSN (print)1354-1013
ISSN (online)1365-2486
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science
Environmental Chemistry
Global and Planetary Change

Other styles