How to format your references using the Global Change Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Change Biology (GCB). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Venkatraman, V. (2015). Working life. The space roboticist. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6245), 338.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dobson, D. P., & Brodholt, J. P. (2005). Subducted banded iron formations as a source of ultralow-velocity zones at the core-mantle boundary. Nature, 434(7031), 371–374.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lin, T.-W., Dai, C.-S., & Hung, K.-C. (2014). High energy density asymmetric supercapacitor based on NiOOH/Ni3S2/3D graphene and Fe3O4/graphene composite electrodes. Scientific Reports, 4, 7274.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Orlando, D. A., Lin, C. Y., Bernard, A., Wang, J. Y., Socolar, J. E. S., Iversen, E. S., Hartemink, A. J., & Haase, S. B. (2008). Global control of cell-cycle transcription by coupled CDK and network oscillators. Nature, 453(7197), 944–947.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Declerck, P. (2012). Discrete Event Systems in Dioid Algebra and Conventional Algebra. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dickson, R. R., Meincke, J., & Rhines, P. (Eds.). (2008). Arctic–Subarctic Ocean Fluxes: Defining the Role of the Northern Seas in Climate. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Murthy, D. N. P., & Jack, N. (2014). EWs/MSCs: An Overview. In N. Jack (Ed.), Extended Warranties, Maintenance Service and Lease Contracts: Modeling and Analysis for Decision-Making (pp. 91–125). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Change Biology.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2015, November 16). Why You Should Never Feed Bread To Ducks. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1980). Question Concerning Whether Funds Available Under Career Education Incentive Act Were Illegally Rescinded (B-200769). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boakyewa, O. A. (2014). Nana Oparebea and the Akonnedi Shrine: Cultural, religious and global agents [Doctoral dissertation]. Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2011, January 21). A Path Is Sought for States To Escape Debt Burdens. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Venkatraman, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Dobson & Brodholt, 2005; Venkatraman, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dobson & Brodholt, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Lin et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Orlando et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Change Biology
AbbreviationGlob. Chang. Biol.
ISSN (print)1354-1013
ISSN (online)1365-2486
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science
Environmental Chemistry
Global and Planetary Change

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