How to format your references using the Global Change Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Change Biology (GCB). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crow, J. F. (2003). Development. There’s something curious about paternal-age effects. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5633), 606–607.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brent, R., & Lok, L. (2005). Cell biology. A fishing buddy for hypothesis generators. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5721), 504–506.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cheung, V. G., Sherman, S. L., & Feingold, E. (2010). Genetics. Genetic control of hotspots. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5967), 791–792.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Herrmann, E., Call, J., Hernàndez-Lloreda, M. V., Hare, B., & Tomasello, M. (2007). Humans have evolved specialized skills of social cognition: the cultural intelligence hypothesis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5843), 1360–1366.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chin, W. C. (2016). Resistivity Modeling. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kasper, E. (2005). Silicon Quantum Integrated Circuits: Silicon-Germanium Heterostructure Devices: Basics and Realisations (D. J. Paul, Ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Curry, G. L., & Feldman, R. M. (2011). Processing Time Variability. In R. M. Feldman (Ed.), Manufacturing Systems Modeling and Analysis (pp. 109–123). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Change Biology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, December 19). Mini-Spiral Galaxies Might Tell A Different Dark Matter Story. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from IFLScience website:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). Social Security Administration: Technology Modernization Needs Improved Planning and Performance Measures (No. GAO-12-723T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCullough, J. (2009). Functional outcomes and patient satisfaction. A retrospective study to determine if these factors are correlated in a clinical setting. A project report (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L. F. (2006, January 1). The Legacies They Left. New York Times, p. 14LI6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crow, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Brent & Lok, 2005; Crow, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brent & Lok, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Cheung, Sherman, & Feingold, 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Herrmann, Call, Hernàndez-Lloreda, Hare, & Tomasello, 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Change Biology
AbbreviationGlob. Chang. Biol.
ISSN (print)1354-1013
ISSN (online)1365-2486
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science
Environmental Chemistry
Global and Planetary Change

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