How to format your references using the Global Change Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Change Biology (GCB). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Morse, S. S. (2008). Retrospective: Joshua Lederberg (1925-2008). Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5868), 1351.
A journal article with 2 authors
Singh, D. J., & Parker, D. (2013). Itinerant magnetism in doped semiconducting β-FeSi₂ and CrSi₂. Scientific Reports, 3, 3517.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kuba, H., Ishii, T. M., & Ohmori, H. (2006). Axonal site of spike initiation enhances auditory coincidence detection. Nature, 444(7122), 1069–1072.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Naebe, M., Wang, J., Amini, A., Khayyam, H., Hameed, N., Li, L. H., Chen, Y., & Fox, B. (2014). Mechanical property and structure of covalent functionalised graphene/epoxy nanocomposites. Scientific Reports, 4, 4375.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schulman, F. Y. (2016). Veterinarian’s Guide to Maximizing Biopsy Results. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Broderick, P. A., Rahni, D. N., & Kolodny, E. H. (Eds.). (2005). Bioimaging in Neurodegeneration. Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Bolla, K., Kovacs, T., & Fazekas, G. (2012). Gathering of Fat Robots with Limited Visibility and without Global Navigation. In L. Rutkowski, M. Korytkowski, R. Scherer, R. Tadeusiewicz, L. A. Zadeh, & J. M. Zurada (Eds.), Swarm and Evolutionary Computation: International Symposia, SIDE 2012 and EC 2012, Held in Conjunction with ICAISC 2012, Zakopane, Poland, April 29-May 3, 2012. Proceedings (pp. 30–38). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Change Biology.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, August 25). Archaeologists Have Discovered A Brand New Ancient God. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). NASA: Assessments of Selected Large-Scale Projects (GAO-09-306SP). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wright, J. L. (2015). Shade Tolerance and Physiological Response to Light Regime of the Invasive Species Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle) [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2007, February 18). Two Legislative Seats To Be Filled on March 27. New York Times, 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Morse, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Morse, 2008; Singh & Parker, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Singh & Parker, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Kuba et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Naebe et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Change Biology
AbbreviationGlob. Chang. Biol.
ISSN (print)1354-1013
ISSN (online)1365-2486
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science
Environmental Chemistry
Global and Planetary Change

Other styles