How to format your references using the Global Change Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Change Biology (GCB). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Robinson, C. V. (2011). John Fenn (1917-2010). Nature, 469(7330), 300.
A journal article with 2 authors
Junttila, M. R., & de Sauvage, F. J. (2013). Influence of tumour micro-environment heterogeneity on therapeutic response. Nature, 501(7467), 346–354.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blois, J. L., McGuire, J. L., & Hadly, E. A. (2010). Small mammal diversity loss in response to late-Pleistocene climatic change. Nature, 465(7299), 771–774.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Joye, S. B., Leifer, I., MacDonald, I. R., Chanton, J. P., Meile, C. D., Teske, A. P., Kostka, J. E., Chistoserdova, L., Coffin, R., Hollander, D., Kastner, M., Montoya, J. P., Rehder, G., Solomon, E., Treude, T., & Villareal, T. A. (2011). Comment on “A persistent oxygen anomaly reveals the fate of spilled methane in the deep Gulf of Mexico.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6033), 1033; author reply 1033.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shynk, J. J. (2016). Mathematical Foundations for Linear Circuits and Systems in Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ricciardi, F., & Harfouche, A. (Eds.). (2016). Information and Communication Technologies in Organizations and Society: Past, Present and Future Issues (1st ed. 2016, Vol. 15). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Boer, J., Vijver, M., Wesenbeeck, L., Herok, C., & Kuik, O. (2006). Social Desirability: National and International Context. In H. Aiking, J. de Boer, & J. Vereijken (Eds.), Sustainable Protein Production and Consumption: Pigs or Peas? (pp. 129–153). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Change Biology.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, October 1). Guard Crabs Defend Coral Reefs from Predatory Sea Star Army. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Highway Infrastructure: Physical Conditions of the Interstate Highway System Have Improved, but Congestion and Other Pressure Continue (GAO-02-1128T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Belcher, J. T. (2009). Optimism, psychological well-being, and quality of life in females with Fibromyalgia Syndrome [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gluck, J. P. (2016, September 2). Regretting My Animal Research. New York Times, SR7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Robinson, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Junttila & de Sauvage, 2013; Robinson, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Junttila & de Sauvage, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Blois et al., 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Joye et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Change Biology
AbbreviationGlob. Chang. Biol.
ISSN (print)1354-1013
ISSN (online)1365-2486
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science
Environmental Chemistry
Global and Planetary Change

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