How to format your references using the Urolithiasis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urolithiasis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bell LE (2008) Cooling, heating, generating power, and recovering waste heat with thermoelectric systems. Science 321:1457–1461
A journal article with 2 authors
Burgoyne CB, Lea SEG (2006) Psychology. Money is material. Science 314:1091–1092
A journal article with 3 authors
Michael HA, Mulligan AE, Harvey CF (2005) Seasonal oscillations in water exchange between aquifers and the coastal ocean. Nature 436:1145–1148
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Garand E, Zhou J, Manolopoulos DE, et al (2008) Nonadiabatic interactions in the Cl + H2 reaction probed by ClH2- and ClD2- photoelectron imaging. Science 319:72–75

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Waupsh J (2016) Bankruption. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Boone T, Jayaraman V, Ganeshan R (2012) Sustainable Supply Chains: Models, Methods, and Public Policy Implications. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Crozier PA, Miller BK (2016) Spectroscopy of Solids, Gases, and Liquids in the ETEM. In: Hansen TW, Wagner JB (eds) Controlled Atmosphere Transmission Electron Microscopy: Principles and Practice. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 95–141

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urolithiasis.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) A Mind-Bending Mirror Illusion Turns Circles Into Squares. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) APHIS: Solid Wood Packing Material From China. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salazar A (2012) Small school, big gains: A case study of urban high school reform. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2012) Deconstructing the Legend of Choo Choo. New York Times B13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleUrolithiasis
ISSN (print)2194-7228
ISSN (online)2194-7236

Other styles