How to format your references using the Waterbirds citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Waterbirds. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Suresh, S. 2012. Research funding: Global challenges need global solutions. Nature 490: 337–338.
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Dell, C.R., and L.K. Townsley. 2008. Astronomy. Orion continues to surprise. Science (New York, N.Y.) 319: 289–290.
A journal article with 3 authors
Abou Chakra, M. … A. Traulsen. 2014. Plastic behaviors in hosts promote the emergence of retaliatory parasites. Scientific reports 4: 4251.
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Musevic, I. … S. Zumer. 2006. Two-dimensional nematic colloidal crystals self-assembled by topological defects. Science (New York, N.Y.) 313: 954–958.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Voldman, S.H. 2014. ESD. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, United Kingdom.
An edited book
Chen, W.-Y. … M. Lackner (eds.). 2012. Handbook of Climate Change Mitigation. Springer US, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Schade, R., and P.A. Chacana. 2007. Livetin Fractions (IgY). Pages 25–32 in Bioactive Egg Compounds (R. Huopalahti … R. Schade, Eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Waterbirds.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. This Technique Could Lead To Self-Healing Tires. IFLScience., accessed, 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. Security: Breaches at Federal Agencies and Airports. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thomas-Whitman, D. 2012. Treading water: Civic engagement efforts in a time of budget crisis at a public university. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. 2016. A Grievous Homecoming (It’s O.K. to Laugh). New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Suresh 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Suresh 2012; O’Dell and Townsley 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (O’Dell and Townsley 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Musevic et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleWaterbirds
ISSN (print)1524-4695
ISSN (online)1938-5390
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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