How to format your references using the Waterbirds citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Waterbirds. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Newman, D.K. 2010. Microbiology. Feasting on minerals. Science (New York, N.Y.) 327: 793–794.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wickware, P., and P. Smaglik. 2001. Labs and companies seek their niches as work continues after the draft. Nature 409: 961–963.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, B. … L. Wu. 2012. Intensified Arabian Sea tropical storms. Nature 489: E1-2; discussion E2-3.
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Knaut, H. … Tübingen 2000 Screen Consortium. 2003. A zebrafish homologue of the chemokine receptor Cxcr4 is a germ-cell guidance receptor. Nature 421: 279–282.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hossler, F.E. 2014. Ultrastructure Atlas of Human Tissues. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Clauss-Ehlers, C.S. … M.D. Weist (eds.). 2013. Handbook of Culturally Responsive School Mental Health: Advancing Research, Training, Practice, and Policy. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Patig, S. … B. Vögeli. 2010. IT Requirements of Business Process Management in Practice – An Empirical Study. Pages 13–28 in Business Process Management: 8th International Conference, BPM 2010, Hoboken, NJ, USA, September 13-16, 2010. Proceedings (R. Hull … S. Tai, Eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Waterbirds.

Blog post
Andrews, R. 2017. Dragonfish Have A Really Freaky Way Of Opening Their Jaws. IFLScience., accessed, 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2003. Student Loan Programs: As Federal Costs of Loan Consolidation Rise, Other Options Should Be Examined. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hill - Carter, C.N. 2010. Effects of teacher mentoring on teacher retention. Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kaag, J. 2017. Cosmic Explorer. New York Times BR13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Newman 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Newman 2010; Wickware and Smaglik 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wickware and Smaglik 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Knaut et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleWaterbirds
ISSN (print)1524-4695
ISSN (online)1938-5390
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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