How to format your references using the Waterbirds citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Waterbirds. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fields, B.D. 2001. Cosmology. A census of cosmic matter. Science (New York, N.Y.) 294: 529–530.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lutter, C.K., and R. Lutter. 2012. Fetal and early childhood undernutrition, mortality, and lifelong health. Science (New York, N.Y.) 337: 1495–1499.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, S. … M. Long. 2010. New genes in Drosophila quickly become essential. Science (New York, N.Y.) 330: 1682–1685.
A journal article with 3 or more authors
van Oijen, A.M. … X.S. Xie. 2003. Single-molecule kinetics of lambda exonuclease reveal base dependence and dynamic disorder. Science (New York, N.Y.) 301: 1235–1238.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McCrary, S.A. 2010. Mastering Corporate Finance Essentials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Mohapatra, P., and S.V. Krishnamurthy (eds.). 2005. Ad Hoc Networks: Technologies and Protocols. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Dinh, T.-C., and N. Sibony. 2010. Dynamics in Several Complex Variables: Endomorphisms of Projective Spaces and Polynomial-like Mappings. Pages 165–294 in Holomorphic Dynamical Systems: Cetraro, Italy, July 7-12, 2008 (E. Bedford … G. Patrizio, Eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Waterbirds.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014. Time Lapse Video of Strawberries. IFLScience., accessed, 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1975. Federal Funding Provided to 10 Police Departments for Intelligence Activities. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Horwitz, M.H. 2017. Morphodynamics and Sediment Transport Pathways of the John’s Pass-Blind Pass Dual Inlet System: Pinellas County, Florida. University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED, M.J. 2017. Sempra Bid Tops Buffett in Billionaires’ Race for Energy Future. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fields 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Fields 2001; Lutter and Lutter 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lutter and Lutter 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (van Oijen et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleWaterbirds
ISSN (print)1524-4695
ISSN (online)1938-5390
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

Other styles