How to format your references using the Urban Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urban Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sakurai, M. Perspective: Herbal Dangers. Nature 2011, 480, S97.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smaglik, P.; Smith, A. A Route to Flexible Working. Nature 2002, 415, 4–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Noble, M.E.M.; Endicott, J.A.; Johnson, L.N. Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Insights into Drug Design from Structure. Science 2004, 303, 1800–1805.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Livet, J.; Weissman, T.A.; Kang, H.; Draft, R.W.; Lu, J.; Bennis, R.A.; Sanes, J.R.; Lichtman, J.W. Transgenic Strategies for Combinatorial Expression of Fluorescent Proteins in the Nervous System. Nature 2007, 450, 56–62.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Woolf, G. Tales of the Barbarians; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2011; ISBN 9781444390810.
An edited book
Complex Systems: Relationships between Control, Communications and Computing; Dimirovski, G.M., Ed.; Studies in Systems, Decision and Control; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; Vol. 55; ISBN 9783319288581.
A chapter in an edited book
Jari, B.; Fraser, G.; Obi, A. Influence of institutional factors on smallholder farmers ’ marketing channel choices. In Institutional constraints to small farmer development in Southern Africa; Obi, A., Ed.; Wageningen Academic Publishers: Wageningen, 2011; pp. 101–117 ISBN 9789086867042.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urban Science.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. Physicists Take Particle Accelerator On 5,000-Kilometer Trip To Understand The Nature Of Muons (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Pipeline Safety: Better Data and Guidance Needed to Improve Pipeline Operator Incident Response; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2013;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hester, E.T. Impact of Geomorphic Structures on Hyporheic Exchange, Temperature, and Ecological Processes in Streams. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina: Chapel Hill, NC, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira, S. From Raising Consciousness to Raising Hell. New York Times 2017, SR8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleUrban Science
ISSN (online)2413-8851

Other styles