How to format your references using the Urban Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urban Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schnitzer, M.J. Journal Club. A Neuroscientist Learns about Algorithms for Motor Learning. Nature 2010, 463, 273.
A journal article with 2 authors
Meyer, E.; Glatzel, T. Applied Physics. Novel Probes for Molecular Electronics. Science 2009, 324, 1397–1398.
A journal article with 3 authors
Balazs, A.C.; Emrick, T.; Russell, T.P. Nanoparticle Polymer Composites: Where Two Small Worlds Meet. Science 2006, 314, 1107–1110.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Brown, P.; Sutikna, T.; Morwood, M.J.; Soejono, R.P.; Jatmiko; Saptomo, E.W.; Due, R.A. A New Small-Bodied Hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature 2004, 431, 1055–1061.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.G. Upton, G. Categorical Data Analysis by Example; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2016; ISBN 9781119450382.
An edited book
Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker: Major Texts in Philosophy; Drieschner, M., Ed.; SpringerBriefs on Pioneers in Science and Practice; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; Vol. 23; ISBN 9783319036700.
A chapter in an edited book
Sadler, D.R. Transforming Holistic Assessment and Grading into a Vehicle for Complex Learning. In Assessment, Learning and Judgement in Higher Education; Joughin, G., Ed.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2009; pp. 1–19 ISBN 9781402089046.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urban Science.

Blog post
Andrews, R. US Google Searches For “Climate Change” And “Paris Agreement” Spiked Only This Month Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Information Technology: OMB’s Dashboard Has Increased Transparency and Oversight, but Improvements Needed; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2010;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dale, B. Changing How We Change: A Case Study of Escondido Union School District. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. ‘Mixed Results’ for U.S.; Uncertain Future for Coach. New York Times 2010, B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleUrban Science
ISSN (online)2413-8851

Other styles