How to format your references using the Urban Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urban Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dainton, M. Palaeoanthropology: Did our ancestors knuckle-walk? Nature 2001, 410, 324–5; disussion 326.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gestwicki, J.E.; Kiessling, L.L. Inter-receptor communication through arrays of bacterial chemoreceptors. Nature 2002, 415, 81–84.
A journal article with 3 authors
Arantes-Oliveira, N.; Berman, J.R.; Kenyon, C. Healthy animals with extreme longevity. Science 2003, 302, 611.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Medaglia, C.; Giladi, A.; Stoler-Barak, L.; De Giovanni, M.; Salame, T.M.; Biram, A.; David, E.; Li, H.; Iannacone, M.; Shulman, Z.; et al. Spatial reconstruction of immune niches by combining photoactivatable reporters and scRNA-seq. Science 2017, 358, 1622–1626.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tian, J. Software Quality Engineering; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471722328.
An edited book
MGH Cardiology Board Review; Gaggin, H.K., Januzzi, J.L., Jr., Eds.; Springer: London, 2014; ISBN 9781447144823.
A chapter in an edited book
Shi, L.; Ólafsson, S. Hybrid Nested Partitions Algorithm. In Nested Partitions Method, Theory and Applications; Ólafsson, S., Ed.; International Series in Operations Research & Management Science; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2009; pp. 85–103 ISBN 9780387719085.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urban Science.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. Why Don’t Scavengers Get Sick? Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Air Traffic Control: FAA Enhanced the Controller-in-Charge Program, but More Comprehensive Evaluation is Needed; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2001;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chongkrairatanakul, W. Foreign-educated nurses. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. Suozzi Offers Plan to Shore Up Aviation Museum. New York Times 2006, LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleUrban Science
ISSN (online)2413-8851

Other styles