How to format your references using the Urban Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urban Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barbier, E. Sustainability: Tax “societal Ills” to Save the Planet. Nature 2012, 483, 30.
A journal article with 2 authors
Blackstock, J.J.; Long, J.C.S. Climate Change. The Politics of Geoengineering. Science 2010, 327, 527.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tateishi-Karimata, H.; Nakano, M.; Sugimoto, N. Comparable Stability of Hoogsteen and Watson-Crick Base Pairs in Ionic Liquid Choline Dihydrogen Phosphate. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 3593.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Topinka, M.A.; LeRoy, B.J.; Westervelt, R.M.; Shaw, S.E.; Fleischmann, R.; Heller, E.J.; Maranowski, K.D.; Gossard, A.C. Coherent Branched Flow in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas. Nature 2001, 410, 183–186.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Waxman, A.B. Rogues of Wall Street; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2017; ISBN 9781119380184.
An edited book
Advances in Biometrics: International Conference, ICB 2007, Seoul, Korea, August 27-29, 2007. Proceedings; Lee, S.-W., Li, S.Z., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; Vol. 4642; ISBN 9783540745488.
A chapter in an edited book
Makris, G.; Filippidis, K. Fiscal Policy Under the EMU: Facts and Prospects. In Balkan and Eastern European Countries in the Midst of the Global Economic Crisis; Karasavvoglou, A., Polychronidou, P., Eds.; Contributions to Economics; Physica-Verlag HD: Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 63–74 ISBN 9783790828726.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urban Science.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Insanely Fuel Efficient Engine Could Go To Mars And Back On One Tank Of Fuel (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Getting the New Communities Program Started: Progress and Problems; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1974;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Olson, L.L. Of Hell and High Water: Longitudinal Case Studies of the Internal and External Recovery Efforts of Non-Governmental Organizations after Hurricane Katrina. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. Bill Is Passed to Ban Bots That Ticket Scalpers Use. New York Times 2016, B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleUrban Science
ISSN (online)2413-8851

Other styles