How to format your references using the Urban Forum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urban Forum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wain-Hobson, S. (2006). The third Bond. Nature, 439(7076), 539.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kofoed, E. M., & Vance, R. E. (2011). Innate immune recognition of bacterial ligands by NAIPs determines inflammasome specificity. Nature, 477(7366), 592–595.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nuttall, W. J., Clarke, R. H., & Glowacki, B. A. (2012). Resources: Stop squandering helium. Nature, 485(7400), 573–575.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Graham, D. W., Lupton, J. E., Spera, F. J., & Christie, D. M. (2001). Upper-mantle dynamics revealed by helium isotope variations along the southeast Indian ridge. Nature, 409(6821), 701–703.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Xing, B., Vecitis, C. D., & Senesi, N. (2016). Engineered Nanoparticles and the Environment: Biophysicochemical Processes and Toxicity. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Babuška, R., & Groen, F. C. A. (Eds.). (2010). Interactive Collaborative Information Systems (Vol. 281). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ehringfeld, A., Naber, L., Kappel, K., Fischer, G., Pichl, E., & Grechenig, T. (2011). Learning from a Distributed Denial of Service Attack against a Legally Binding Electronic Election: Scenario, Operational Experience, Legal Consequences. In K. N. Andersen, E. Francesconi, Å. Grönlund, & T. M. van Engers (Eds.), Electronic Government and the Information Systems Perspective: Second International Conference, EGOVIS 2011, Toulouse, France, August 29 – September 2, 2011. Proceedings (pp. 56–67). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urban Forum.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, December 8). New Device Performs Eye Exams With Smartphone. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). GAO Work Related to ESEA of 1965 (No. HEHS-94-156R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Prejean, K. D. (2015). An Analysis of Corporal Punishment Practices in Texas Public Schools: Race, School District Size, Academic Performance, and Policy Influences (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MacFARQUHAR, N. (2015, January 13). Conspiracy Theories Mix With Somber Condolences. New York Times, p. A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wain-Hobson 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Kofoed and Vance 2011; Wain-Hobson 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kofoed and Vance 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Graham et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleUrban Forum
ISSN (print)1015-3802
ISSN (online)1874-6330
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Urban Studies

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