How to format your references using the Urban Forum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urban Forum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stajic, J. (2013). Quantum information processing. The future of quantum information processing. Introduction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6124), 1163.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scotland, R. W., & Sanderson, M. J. (2004). The significance of few versus many in the tree of life. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5658), 643.
A journal article with 3 authors
Peng, L., Song, Z.-G., & Jiao, S.-C. (2014). Efficacy analysis of tyrosine kinase inhibitors on rare non-small cell lung cancer patients harboring complex EGFR mutations. Scientific reports, 4, 6104.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lacorre, P., Goutenoire, F., Bohnke, O., Retoux, R., & Laligant, Y. (2000). Designing fast oxide-ion conductors based on La2Mo2O9. Nature, 404(6780), 856–858.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Frank, P., & Ottoboni, M. A. (2011). The Dose Makes the Poison. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Muijs, D. (2011). Collaboration and Networking in Education. (M. Ainscow, C. Chapman, & M. West, Eds.). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Sencha, A. N., Evseeva, E. V., Mogutov, M. S., & Patrunov, Y. N. (2013). Ultrasound Diagnosis of Breast Cancer. In E. V. Evseeva, M. S. Mogutov, & Y. N. Patrunov (Eds.), Breast Ultrasound (pp. 49–122). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urban Forum.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 21). British Soldiers Sent To Gabon To Help Tackle Ivory Poaching. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Information Technology: OMB Can Make More Effective Use of Its Investment Reviews (No. GAO-05-276). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Witowski, L. L. (2008). The relationship between instructional delivery methods and student learning preferences: What contributes to student satisfaction in an online learning environment? (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Strauss, B. (2017, February 13). N.C.A.A. Deal Pays Athletes Back for Hidden Costs of a Full Ride. New York Times, p. D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stajic 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Scotland and Sanderson 2004; Stajic 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Scotland and Sanderson 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Lacorre et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleUrban Forum
ISSN (print)1015-3802
ISSN (online)1874-6330
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Urban Studies

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