How to format your references using the Urban Forum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urban Forum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wetherbee, R. (2002). Biomineralization. The diatom glasshouse. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5593), 547.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goldblatt, C., & Zahnle, K. J. (2011). Faint young Sun paradox remains. Nature, 474(7349), E3-4; discussion E4-5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Neumann, G., Noda, T., & Kawaoka, Y. (2009). Emergence and pandemic potential of swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus. Nature, 459(7249), 931–939.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Jaeger, J.-J., Beard, K. C., Chaimanee, Y., Salem, M., Benammi, M., Hlal, O., et al. (2010). Late middle Eocene epoch of Libya yields earliest known radiation of African anthropoids. Nature, 467(7319), 1095–1098.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rowe, P. (2015). Essential Statistics for the Pharmaceutical Sciences. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ehrenfreund, P., Irvine, W., Owen, T., Becker, L., Blank, J., Brucato, J., et al. (Eds.). (2005). Astrobiology: Future Perspectives (Vol. 305). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Fine, J.-D., & Diem, A. (2009). Living with EB. In J.-D. Fine & H. Hintner (Eds.), Life with Epidermolysis Bullosa (EB): Etiology, Diagnosis, Multidisciplinary Care and Therapy (pp. 309–333). Vienna: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urban Forum.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, January 30). Skull Vibrations Help Baleen Whales Hear. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). General Aviation: Observations Related to Liability Insurance Requirements and Coverage for Aircraft Owners (No. GAO-15-740). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adaligil, E. (2010). Electron transfer through self-assembled monolayers of alkaneselenols and alkanethiols on mercury electrode (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Halbfinger, D. M., & Hubbard, B. (2017, September 7). Airstrikes on Syrian Sites Renew Focus on Chemical Arms. New York Times, p. A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wetherbee 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Goldblatt and Zahnle 2011; Wetherbee 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Goldblatt and Zahnle 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Jaeger et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleUrban Forum
ISSN (print)1015-3802
ISSN (online)1874-6330
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Urban Studies

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