How to format your references using the Acta Ecologica Sinica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Ecologica Sinica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P.F. Leadlay, Structural biology: enzyme assembly line pictured, Nature. 510 (2014) 482–483.
A journal article with 2 authors
P. Hemmer, J. Wrachtrup, Physics. Where is my quantum computer?, Science. 324 (2009) 473–474.
A journal article with 3 authors
R.A. Nicoll, S. Tomita, D.S. Bredt, Auxiliary subunits assist AMPA-type glutamate receptors, Science. 311 (2006) 1253–1256.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T. Takayama, A. Yaresko, A. Matsumoto, J. Nuss, K. Ishii, M. Yoshida, J. Mizuki, H. Takagi, Spin-orbit coupling induced semi-metallic state in the 1/3 hole-doped hyper-kagome Na3Ir3O8, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6818.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
V.K. Garg, Concurrent and Distributed Computing in Java, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
J. Handl, E. Hart, P.R. Lewis, M. López-Ibáñez, G. Ochoa, B. Paechter, eds., Parallel Problem Solving from Nature – PPSN XIV: 14th International Conference, Edinburgh, UK, September 17-21, 2016, Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Delaët, B. Ducourthial, S. Tixeuil, Self-stabilization with r-Operators Revisited, in: S. Tixeuil, T. Herman (Eds.), Self-Stabilizing Systems: 7th International Symposium, SSS 2005, Barcelona, Spain, October 26-27, 2005. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005: pp. 68–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Ecologica Sinica.

Blog post
D. Andrew, At What Age Is It Easiest To Learn A Second Language?, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Airspace Use: Status of Proposals To Expand Special Use Airspace in North Carolina, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Zhao, Contextual Differential Item Functioning: Examining the Validity of Teaching Self-Efficacy Instruments Using Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Protess, J. Silver-Greenberg, J. Drucker, Regulators Review German Bank At the Center of Trump’s Finances, New York Times. (2017) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Ecologica Sinica
AbbreviationSheng Tai Xue Bao
ISSN (print)1872-2032

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