How to format your references using the Acta Ecologica Sinica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Ecologica Sinica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Kuhn, Cardiology: A big-hearted molecule, Nature. 519 (2015) 416–417.
A journal article with 2 authors
L.M. Krauss, B. Chaboyer, Age estimates of globular clusters in the Milky Way: constraints on cosmology, Science. 299 (2003) 65–69.
A journal article with 3 authors
C.E. Crespo-Hernández, B. Cohen, B. Kohler, Base stacking controls excited-state dynamics in A.T DNA, Nature. 436 (2005) 1141–1144.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G.I. Mias, R. Chen, Y. Zhang, K. Sridhar, D. Sharon, L. Xiao, H. Im, M.P. Snyder, P.L. Greenberg, Specific plasma autoantibody reactivity in myelodysplastic syndromes, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3311.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H.F. Cook, The Protection and Conservation of Water Resources, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2017.
An edited book
A. Kalet, C.L. Chou, eds., Remediation in Medical Education: A Mid-Course Correction, Springer, New York, NY, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
B.J. Wiltgen, R.A.M. Brown, L.E. Talton, A.J. Silva, Towards a Molecular and Cellular Understanding of Remote Memory, in: B. Bontempi, A.J. Silva, Y. Christen (Eds.), Memories: Molecules and Circuits, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007: pp. 59–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Ecologica Sinica.

Blog post
K. Evans, 26 Time-Management Tricks I Wish I’d Known At 20, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Examination of the Treatment of Peer Reviewers’ Comments on Support for the “Individualized Science Instructional System” Project, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.P. Sherman, The effect of head and heart on municipal employee retention, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2001.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Kelly, IN GAZA, PEACE MEETS PATHOLOGY, New York Times. (1994) 656.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Ecologica Sinica
AbbreviationSheng Tai Xue Bao
ISSN (print)1872-2032

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