How to format your references using the Optik citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optik. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B. Cannon, Cardiovascular disease: Biochemistry to behaviour, Nature. 493 (2013) S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
C.M. Constantinople, R.M. Bruno, Deep cortical layers are activated directly by thalamus, Science. 340 (2013) 1591–1594.
A journal article with 3 authors
U. Sivars, D. Aivazian, S.R. Pfeffer, Yip3 catalyses the dissociation of endosomal Rab-GDI complexes, Nature. 425 (2003) 856–859.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Zhu, W. Zhao, L. Jia, J. Lu, T. Qiao, Q. Qu, The oldest articulated osteichthyan reveals mosaic gnathostome characters, Nature. 458 (2009) 469–474.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B.N. Steenbarger, Trading Psychology 2.0, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
E. Kim, B.H.S. Kim, eds., Quantitative Regional Economic and Environmental Analysis for Sustainability in Korea, Springer, Singapore, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
A. De Simone, Y. Dong, P.D. Vivancos, C.H. Foyer, GSH Partitioning Between the Nucleus and Cytosol in Arabidopsis thaliana, in: L.J. De Kok, M.J. Hawkesford, H. Rennenberg, K. Saito, E. Schnug (Eds.), Molecular Physiology and Ecophysiology of Sulfur, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 37–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optik.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Anomalous Great Basin Climate Record Resolved, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, No Child Left Behind Act: States Face Challenges Measuring Academic Growth, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B.H. Kane, A Qualitative Exploratory Inquiry of Communicating in a Multigenerational Traditional-Rational Organization, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Greenhouse, Justices Uphold a Death Sentence Twice Overturned, New York Times. (2006) A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptik
AbbreviationOptik (Stuttg.)
ISSN (print)0030-4026
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles