How to format your references using the Optik citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optik. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Kabat, Systems science for policy evaluation, Science. 336 (2012) 1398.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. Rappuoli, P.R. Dormitzer, Influenza: options to improve pandemic preparation, Science. 336 (2012) 1531–1533.
A journal article with 3 authors
H. Ohmoto, Y. Watanabe, K. Kumazawa, Evidence from massive siderite beds for a CO2-rich atmosphere before approximately 1.8 billion years ago, Nature. 429 (2004) 395–399.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
I.S. Farooqi, E. Bullmore, J. Keogh, J. Gillard, S. O’Rahilly, P.C. Fletcher, Leptin regulates striatal regions and human eating behavior, Science. 317 (2007) 1355.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
N. Hadjsaïd, J.-C. Sabonnadière, Power Systems and Restructuring, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
H.D. Ebbinghaus, Ernst Zermelo: An Approach to His Life and Work, 2nd ed. 2015, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
S.S. Ludher, The Sikh Diaspora in Australia, in: A. Singh (Ed.), Indian Diaspora: Voices of Grandparents and Grandparenting, SensePublishers, Rotterdam, 2013: pp. 77–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optik.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, Construction Workers Unearthed Something Very Unexpected While Digging A Hole, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Year 2000 Computing Crisis: FAA Is Making Progress But Important Challenges Remain, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L. Hintz, Fighting for Us, Inside and Out: National Identity Contestation and Foreign Policy in Turkey, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Saslow, Jets Overhead, Noise Complaints Below, New York Times. (2006) LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptik
AbbreviationOptik (Stuttg.)
ISSN (print)0030-4026
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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