How to format your references using the Universal Access in the Information Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Universal Access in the Information Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holmes, E.C.: Virology. Helping the resistance. Science. 328, 1243–1244 (2010)
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, L.V., Hu, S.: Photoacoustic tomography: in vivo imaging from organelles to organs. Science. 335, 1458–1462 (2012)
A journal article with 3 authors
Soroceanu, L., Akhavan, A., Cobbs, C.S.: Platelet-derived growth factor-alpha receptor activation is required for human cytomegalovirus infection. Nature. 455, 391–395 (2008)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gao, Y., Trivedi, S., Ferris, R.L., Koide, K.: Regulation of HPV16 E6 and MCL1 by SF3B1 inhibitor in head and neck cancer cells. Sci. Rep. 4, 6098 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mainardi, R.L.: Harnessing the Power of Continuous Auditing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2011)
An edited book
Li, W., Huhns, M.N., Tsai, W.-T., Wu, W. eds: Crowdsourcing: Cloud-Based Software Development. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Sun, Y., Lu, Y.: A Grid-Based Subspace Clustering Algorithm for High-Dimensional Data Streams. In: Feng, L., Wang, G., Zeng, C., and Huang, R. (eds.) Web Information Systems – WISE 2006 Workshops: WISE 2006 International Workshops, Wuhan, China, October 23-26, 2006. Proceedings. pp. 37–48. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2006)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Universal Access in the Information Society.

Blog post
Carpineti, A.: How Many Of The Technologies Depicted In Star Trek Are Now Scientifically Possible?,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Prekindergarten: Four Selected States Expanded Access by Relying on Schools and Existing Providers of Early Education and Care to Provide Services. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2004)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilkins, D.: The Value of the Semantic Differential to the Art Educator, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M.: Reporter’s Notebook; Clinton’s 4-Day Holiday: Exhaustive Relaxation, (1992)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleUniversal Access in the Information Society
ISSN (print)1615-5289
ISSN (online)1615-5297
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Human-Computer Interaction
Information Systems

Other styles