How to format your references using the Neurosignals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurosignals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fitter A: Ecology. Making allelopathy respectable. Science 2003;301:1337–1338.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burdon JJ, Thrall PH: Coevolution of plants and their pathogens in natural habitats. Science 2009;324:755–756.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yang R, Willett SD, Goren L: In situ low-relief landscape formation as a result of river network disruption. Nature 2015;520:526–529.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Scherz PJ, Harfe BD, McMahon AP, Tabin CJ: The limb bud Shh-Fgf feedback loop is terminated by expansion of former ZPA cells. Science 2004;305:396–399.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Greiman VA: Megaproject Management. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013.
An edited book
Icard T, Muskens R (eds): Interfaces: Explorations in Logic, Language and Computation: ESSLLI 2008 and ESSLLI 2009 Student Sessions. Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Akbar A, Howden CW: Lifestyle Modifications in GERD; in Vaezi MF (ed): Diagnosis and Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp 59–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurosignals.

Blog post
Andrew E: Holograms Heading to the International Space Station. IFLScience 2015;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Financing Higher Education: Examples Comparing Existing and Proposed Student Aid Programs. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Purnell CP: Exploring teachers’ perceptions of professional development in virtual learning teams 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B: A Martyr So Sure of Herself. New York Times 2017;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurosignals
ISSN (print)1424-862X
ISSN (online)1424-8638
ScopeCellular and Molecular Neuroscience
Developmental Neuroscience

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