How to format your references using the Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Davis, R. J. (2003). Chemistry. All that glitters is not Au0. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5635), 926–927.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hirsh, A. E., & Fraser, H. B. (2001). Protein dispensability and rate of evolution. Nature, 411(6841), 1046–1049.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yu, X., Jin, L., & Zhou, Z. H. (2008). 3.88 A structure of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus by cryo-electron microscopy. Nature, 453(7193), 415–419.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Man, W., Megens, M., Steinhardt, P. J., & Chaikin, P. M. (2005). Experimental measurement of the photonic properties of icosahedral quasicrystals. Nature, 436(7053), 993–996.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saleh, S. A., & Rahman, M. A. (2010). An Introduction to Wavelet Modulated Inverters. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kirst, M., Schaefer-McDaniel, N., Hwang, S., & O’Campo, P. (Eds.). (2011). Converging Disciplines: A Transdisciplinary Research Approach to Urban Health Problems. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Okumura, M. (2015). Techniques. In Y. Nagata (Ed.), Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: Principles and Practices (pp. 45–57). Tokyo: Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2015, October 23). Climate Change Is Going To Cost Us – Literally. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Air Traffic Control: Advanced Automation System Problems Need To Be Addressed (No. T-RCED-93-15). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gomez, S. (2012). Support group for caregivers coping with their child diagnosed with autism: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M. D., & Vogel, K. P. (2017, September 26). Seat at Le Cirque, and a Word With Trump, for $250,000. New York Times, p. A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Davis 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Davis 2003; Hirsh and Fraser 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hirsh and Fraser 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Man et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Journal of Flexible Systems Management
AbbreviationGlob. J. Flex. Syst. Manag.
ISSN (print)0972-2696
ISSN (online)0974-0198
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Strategy and Management

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