How to format your references using the Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heimann M. Climate change. How stable is the methane cycle? Science 2010;327:1211–1212.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nisbet EG, Sleep NH. The habitat and nature of early life. Nature 2001;409:1083–1091.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gray RD, Drummond AJ, Greenhill SJ. Language phylogenies reveal expansion pulses and pauses in Pacific settlement. Science 2009;323:479–483.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chevalier M-L, Ryerson FJ, Tapponnier P, Finkel RC, Van Der Woerd J, Haibing L, Qing L. Slip-rate measurements on the Karakorum Fault may imply secular variations in fault motion. Science 2005;307:411–414.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McDonnell G, Sheard D. A Practical Guide to Decontamination in Healthcare. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2012.
An edited book
Riel A, O’Connor R, Tichkiewitch S, Messnarz R, eds. Systems, Software and Services Process Improvement: 17th European Conference, EuroSPI 2010, Grenoble, France, September 1-3, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Romeu JL. Statistical Thinking and Data Analysis: Enhancing Human Rights Work. In: Asher J, Banks D, Scheuren FJ, eds. Statistical Methods for Human Rights New York, NY: Springer, 2008. pp. 65–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology.

Blog post
Hamilton K. The Problem With Reinforced Concrete. IFLScience. IFLScience, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Student Loans: Flexible Agreements with Guaranty Agencies Warrant Careful Evaluation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2002 Jan. Report No.: GAO-02-254.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Griess JO. A canine audience: The effect of Animal-Assisted Therapy on reading progress among students identified with learning disabilities [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Becker JO, Apuzzo M, Goldman A. Trump Team Met Russian Offering Dirt on Clinton. New York Times 2017;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Heimann 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Heimann 2010; Nisbet and Sleep 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nisbet and Sleep 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Chevalier et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleUltrasound in Medicine and Biology
AbbreviationUltrasound Med. Biol.
ISSN (print)0301-5629
ISSN (online)1879-291X
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Acoustics and Ultrasonics
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles