How to format your references using the Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Haidt J. The new synthesis in moral psychology. Science 2007;316:998–1002.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rock JR, Hogan BLM. Developmental biology. Branching takes nerve. Science 2010;329:1610–1611.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kislev ME, Hartmann A, Bar-Yosef O. Early domesticated fig in the Jordan Valley. Science 2006;312:1372–1374.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Han J-H, Khoo E, Bai P, Bazant MZ. Over-limiting current and control of dendritic growth by surface conduction in nanopores. Sci Rep 2014;4:7056.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hartfuß H-J, Geist T. Fusion Plasma Diagnostics with mm-Waves. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2013.
An edited book
Alpay D. Slice Hyperholomorphic Schur Analysis. Colombo F, Sabadini I, eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Ben-Chaim D, Keret Y, Ilany B-S. A Mathematical Perspective of Ratio and Proportion. In: Ben-Chaim D, Keret Y, Ilany B-S, eds. Ratio and Proportion: Research and Teaching in Mathematics Teachers’ Education (Pre- and In-Service Mathematics Teachers of Elementary and Middle School Classes) Rotterdam: SensePublishers, 2012. pp. 23–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Humans May Have An In-built GPS, Based On Discovery Of “Speed Cells” In Rats. IFLScience. IFLScience, 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Corporation for Public Broadcasting’s Oversight of National Public Radio. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984 Mar. Report No.: AFMD-84-44.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Penney G. Executive Fire Officers’ strategic thinking capabilities and their relationship with information and communication technology [Doctoral dissertation]. [Boca Raton, FL]: Florida Atlantic University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fernandez M, Pérez-Peña R, Santos F. Gunman in Texas Was F.B.I. Suspect in Jihad Inquiry. New York Times 2015;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Haidt 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Haidt 2007; Rock and Hogan 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rock and Hogan 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Han et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleUltrasound in Medicine and Biology
AbbreviationUltrasound Med. Biol.
ISSN (print)0301-5629
ISSN (online)1879-291X
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Acoustics and Ultrasonics
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

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