How to format your references using the Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon D. Probing real-time protein interactions. Nature 2004;432:249.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hyman AA, Simons K. Cell biology. Beyond oil and water--phase transitions in cells. Science 2012;337:1047–1049.
A journal article with 3 authors
Collins SH, Wiggin MB, Sawicki GS. Reducing the energy cost of human walking using an unpowered exoskeleton. Nature 2015;522:212–215.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Van Aken BB, Rivera J-P, Schmid H, Fiebig M. Observation of ferrotoroidic domains. Nature 2007;449:702–705.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stafford F. Reading Romantic Poetry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2012.
An edited book
Hashim H, Abrams P, Dmochowski R, eds. The Handbook of Office Urological Procedures. London: Springer, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Conti N, Memoli V. One or Many EUs? In: Memoli V, ed. Citizens, Europe and the Media: Have New Media made Citizens more Eurosceptical? Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016. pp. 47–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Do Animals Feel Pain Like We Do? IFLScience. IFLScience, 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: HUD Needs to Improve Key Project Management Practices for Its Modernization Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2013 Jun. Report No.: GAO-13-455.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koonin LM. Acceptability of pharmacies serving as primary dispensers of antiviral drugs during an influenza pandemic: Perspectives of pharmacy executives [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. Always on Offer: Fresh Fish, a Relaxed Vibe. New York Times 2010;NJ5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gershon 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Gershon 2004; Hyman and Simons 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hyman and Simons 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Van Aken et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleUltrasound in Medicine and Biology
AbbreviationUltrasound Med. Biol.
ISSN (print)0301-5629
ISSN (online)1879-291X
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Acoustics and Ultrasonics
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles