How to format your references using the Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Watling L. Deep-sea trawling must be banned. Nature 2013;501:7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sachs MS, Geballe AP. Biochemistry. Sense and sensitivity--controlling the ribosome. Science 2002;297:1820–1821.
A journal article with 3 authors
Batista FD, Iber D, Neuberger MS. B cells acquire antigen from target cells after synapse formation. Nature 2001;411:489–494.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Biron KE, Dickstein DL, Gopaul R, Fenninger F, Jefferies WA. Cessation of neoangiogenesis in Alzheimer’s disease follows amyloid-beta immunization. Sci Rep 2013;3:1354.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sexton D. Trump University Marketing 101. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009.
An edited book
Dillmann A, Heller G, Krämer E, Wagner C, Breitsamter C, eds. New Results in Numerical and Experimental Fluid Mechanics X: Contributions to the 19th STAB/DGLR Symposium Munich, Germany, 2014. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Louw R, Saayman A. Forecasting Tourism Demand for South Africa Using a Single Equation Causal Approach. In: Matias Á, Nijkamp P, Sarmento M, eds. Quantitative Methods in Tourism Economics Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD, 2013. pp. 79–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology.

Blog post
Fang J. Parasitic Wasps Have Genetically Modified Butterflies. IFLScience. IFLScience, 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Emergency Communications: Various Challenges Likely to Slow Implementation of a Public Safety Broadband Network. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2012 Feb. Report No.: GAO-12-343.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yuan J. Membrane Protein Insertion in Bacteria by the YidC and Sec Pathway [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Dodgers Rally, Then Call Upon Their Ace in 9th to Advance. New York Times 2016;B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Armbrust 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Hedges 2003; Morgan 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sachs and Geballe 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Nimmo et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleUltrasound in Medicine and Biology
AbbreviationUltrasound Med. Biol.
ISSN (print)0301-5629
ISSN (online)1879-291X
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Acoustics and Ultrasonics
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles