How to format your references using the Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weisel JW. Biophysics. Enigmas of blood clot elasticity. Science 2008;320:456–457.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rice CM, Saeed M. Hepatitis C: Treatment triumphs. Nature 2014;510:43–44.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li L, Leid M, Rothenberg EV. An early T cell lineage commitment checkpoint dependent on the transcription factor Bcl11b. Science 2010;329:89–93.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kuwatani T, Nagata K, Okada M, Watanabe T, Ogawa Y, Komai T, Tsuchiya N. Machine-learning techniques for geochemical discrimination of 2011 Tohoku tsunami deposits. Sci Rep 2014;4:7077.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Curry SH, Whelpton R. Drug Disposition and Pharmacokinetics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2010.
An edited book
Sengupta A. Fuzzy Preference Ordering of Interval Numbers in Decision Problems. Pal TK, ed. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Maciocco G, Tagliagambe S. What We Want or the Kitsch City and the City of Conformism. In: Tagliagambe S, ed. People and Space: New Forms of Interaction in the City Project Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2009. pp. 31–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology.

Blog post
Andrew E. New Laser Surgery Can Turn Your Eyes From Brown To Blue For $5000. IFLScience. IFLScience, 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Financial Management: Misstatements of NASA’s Statement of Budgetary Resources. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2001 Mar. Report No.: GAO-01-438.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oh Y. Prediction of Steady State Response in Dynamic Mode Atomic Force Microscopy and Its Applications in Nano-metrology [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University, 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Villarosa L. Done Right, Colonoscopy Takes Time, Study Finds. New York Times 2006;F5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Weisel 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Rice and Saeed 2014; Weisel 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rice and Saeed 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Kuwatani et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleUltrasound in Medicine and Biology
AbbreviationUltrasound Med. Biol.
ISSN (print)0301-5629
ISSN (online)1879-291X
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Acoustics and Ultrasonics
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles