How to format your references using the Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clawson, G.A. Cancer. Fusion for Moving. Science 2013, 342, 699–700.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lumaret, R.; Ouazzani, N. Plant Genetics. Ancient Wild Olives in Mediterranean Forests. Nature 2001, 413, 700.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kirichok, Y.; Navarro, B.; Clapham, D.E. Whole-Cell Patch-Clamp Measurements of Spermatozoa Reveal an Alkaline-Activated Ca2+ Channel. Nature 2006, 439, 737–740.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lee, W.-J.; Ma, J.W.; Bae, J.M.; Jeong, K.-S.; Cho, M.-H.; Kang, C.; Wi, J.-S. Strongly Enhanced THz Emission Caused by Localized Surface Charges in Semiconducting Germanium Nanowires. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1984.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aubry, J.-F.; Brînzei, N. Systems Dependability Assessment; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2015; ISBN 9781119053996.
An edited book
Marine and Coastal Ecosystem Valuation, Institutions, and Policy in Southeast Asia; Olewiler, N., Francisco, H.A., Ferrer, A.J.G., Eds.; 1st ed. 2016.; Springer: Singapore, 2016; ISBN 9789811001390.
A chapter in an edited book
Simpson, G.A.; Berlet, G.C. Bunions in Athletes. In Sports Injuries of the Foot: Evolving Diagnosis and Treatment; Philbin, T.M., Ed.; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2014; pp. 35–48 ISBN 9781489974266.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Weather Forecasting Is About To Get Even Better Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Information Technology: Improvements for Acquisition of Customs Trade Processing System Continue, but Further Efforts Needed to Avoid More Cost and Schedule Shortfalls; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2007;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gamez Grijalva, V.M. Biological and Physical-Chemical Methods for Treatment of Semiconductor Manufacturing Effluents. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona: Tucson, AZ, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W. MetLife Will Repatriate an Offshore Reinsurance Unit to Mollify Regulators. New York Times 2013, B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
AbbreviationTrop. Med. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (online)2414-6366

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