How to format your references using the Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nori, F. Physics. Quantum football. Science 2009, 325, 689–690.
A journal article with 2 authors
Montagner, J.P.; Ritsema, J. Geology. Interactions between ridges and plumes. Science 2001, 294, 1472–1473.
A journal article with 3 authors
Petrides, M.; Cadoret, G.; Mackey, S. Orofacial somatomotor responses in the macaque monkey homologue of Broca’s area. Nature 2005, 435, 1235–1238.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Romero, H.E.; Bolton, K.; Rosén, A.; Eklund, P.C. Atom collision-induced resistivity of carbon nanotubes. Science 2005, 307, 89–93.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Best, P. Implementing Value at Risk; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2005; ISBN 9780470013304.
An edited book
Oostra, R.-J. Steding’s and Virágh’s Scanning Electron Microscopy Atlas of the Developing Human Heart; Steding, G., Lamers, W.H., Moorman, A.F.M., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2007; ISBN 9780387369426.
A chapter in an edited book
Tazari, S.; Müller-Hannemann, M.; Weihe, K. Workload Balancing in Multi-stage Production Processes. In Experimental Algorithms: 5th International Workshop, WEA 2006, Cala Galdana, Menorca, Spain, May 24-27, 2006. Proceedings; Àlvarez, C., Serna, M., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006; pp. 49–60 ISBN 9783540345978.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease.

Blog post
Fang, J. Anti Vaxxers Lose New York Court Battle Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office National Airspace System: Experts’ Views on Improving the U.S. Air Traffic Control Modernization Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2005;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mack, D.L. The Cost of Credit: Protecting Consumers in a Regulated Fringe Credit Market. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. After 2 Helmets Are Decertified, Lacrosse Faces Safety Concerns. New York Times 2014, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
AbbreviationTrop. Med. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (online)2414-6366

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