How to format your references using the Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hejtmancik, J.F. Ophthalmology: Cataracts Dissolved. Nature 2015, 523, 540–541.
A journal article with 2 authors
Petersen, J.; Hagan, I.M. Polo Kinase Links the Stress Pathway to Cell Cycle Control and Tip Growth in Fission Yeast. Nature 2005, 435, 507–512.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thorpe, S.K.S.; Holder, R.L.; Crompton, R.H. Origin of Human Bipedalism as an Adaptation for Locomotion on Flexible Branches. Science 2007, 316, 1328–1331.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Günther, T.; Chen, Z.F.; Kim, J.; Priemel, M.; Rueger, J.M.; Amling, M.; Moseley, J.M.; Martin, T.J.; Anderson, D.J.; Karsenty, G. Genetic Ablation of Parathyroid Glands Reveals Another Source of Parathyroid Hormone. Nature 2000, 406, 199–203.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gu, X.; Jiang, N.; Ji, K.; Li, H.; Qiu, X.; Li, W.; Ji, X.; Du, H.; Sheng, B.; Huang, H. Self-Healing Control Technology for Distribution Networks; John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd: Singapore, 2017; ISBN 9781119109341.
An edited book
Endothelial Dysfunction and Inflammation; Dauphinee, S., Karsan, A., Eds.; Progress in Inflammation Research; Springer: Basel, 2010; ISBN 9783034601672.
A chapter in an edited book
Chirichello, M. The Principal as Educational Leader: What Makes the Difference. In School Leadership - International Perspectives; Huber, S., Ed.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2010; pp. 79–100 ISBN 9789048135004.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease.

Blog post
Taub, B. 28 New Unique Species Of Mammal Discovered In The Philippines (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office USDA Telecommunications: Strong Leadership Needed to Resolve Management Weaknesses, Achieve Savings; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barham, O.M. Microfabricated Bulk Piezoelectric Transformers. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park: College Park, MD, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. Long Live the Prince. New York Times 2017, BR9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
AbbreviationTrop. Med. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (online)2414-6366

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