How to format your references using the Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dodt, H.-U. Microscopy. The superresolved brain. Science 2015, 347, 474–475.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ghazanfar, A.A.; Logothetis, N.K. Neuroperception: facial expressions linked to monkey calls. Nature 2003, 423, 937–938.
A journal article with 3 authors
Halley, J.M.; Iwasa, Y.; Vokou, D. Comment on “Extinction debt and windows of conservation opportunity in the Brazilian Amazon.” Science 2013, 339, 271.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Choi, J.-H.; Ryu, W.-H.; Park, K.; Jo, J.-D.; Jo, S.-M.; Lim, D.-S.; Kim, I.-D. Multi-layer electrode with nano-Li4Ti5O12 aggregates sandwiched between carbon nanotube and graphene networks for high power Li-ion batteries. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 7334.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jones, R.B. 20% Chance of Rain; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118116371.
An edited book
Biologics to Treat Substance Use Disorders: Vaccines, Monoclonal Antibodies, and Enzymes; Montoya, I.D., Ed.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319231495.
A chapter in an edited book
Dayspring, T.D. Apoproteins and Cell Surface Receptors Regulating Lipoprotein Metabolism in the Setting of Type 2 Diabetes. In Lipoproteins in Diabetes Mellitus; Jenkins, A.J., Toth, P.P., Lyons, T.J., Eds.; Contemporary Diabetes; Springer: New York, NY, 2014; pp. 55–99 ISBN 9781461475538.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease.

Blog post
Andrew, E. How Do Drugs Work? Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office ADP Systems: Concerns About DOD’s Composite Health Care System Development Contracts; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1987;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schroder, G.L. A quantitative study of critical thinking skills in bachelors of science nursing program students. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ahmed, A.; Nunez, P.; Blinder, A. From Haiti to Florida, a Hurricane’s Trail of Disaster and Near Misses. New York Times 2016, A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,1].
This sentence cites four references [1,1,1,1].

About the journal

Full journal titleTropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
AbbreviationTrop. Med. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (online)2414-6366

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