How to format your references using the Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wesnousky, S.G. Predicting the Endpoints of Earthquake Ruptures. Nature 2006, 444, 358–360.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hunter, C.A.; Mayers, P.C. Knot Tied around an Octahedral Metal Centre. Nature 2001, 411, 763.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kumarevel, T.; Mizuno, H.; Kumar, P.K.R. Structural Basis of HutP-Mediated Anti-Termination and Roles of the Mg2+ Ion and L-Histidine Ligand. Nature 2005, 434, 183–191.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Palmer, M.A.; Bernhardt, E.S.; Schlesinger, W.H.; Eshleman, K.N.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Hendryx, M.S.; Lemly, A.D.; Likens, G.E.; Loucks, O.L.; Power, M.E.; et al. Science and Regulation. Mountaintop Mining Consequences. Science 2010, 327, 148–149.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dunne, R.A. A Statistical Approach to Neural Networks for Pattern Recognition; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2006; ISBN 9780470148150.
An edited book
Chemogenomics and Chemical Genetics: A User’s Introduction for Biologists, Chemists and Informaticians; Marechal, E., Roy, S., Lafanechère, L., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; ISBN 9783642196140.
A chapter in an edited book
Musani, M.H.; Vainrib, A.; Gupta, R.; Poon, M. Coronary Artery Disease Evaluation Using Cardiac CTA. In Clinical Pearls in Diagnostic Cardiac Computed Tomographic Angiography; Feldmann, E.J., Poon, M., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 69–122 ISBN 9783319081670.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. Black-Hole-Scope Could Reveal the Mystery of How Cosmic Jets Form (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office FAA Budget: Key Issues in Facilities and Equipment and Operations Accounts Need Resolution; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1991;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gomes, S. The Lanterman-Petris-Short Act and the Effects of Deinstitutionalization on the Mentally Ill. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lichtblau, E. Poised to Seek Change as Attorney General. New York Times 2016, A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
AbbreviationTrop. Med. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (online)2414-6366

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