How to format your references using the Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Parman, S.W. Helium Isotopic Evidence for Episodic Mantle Melting and Crustal Growth. Nature 2007, 446, 900–903.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mackwell, S.; Rubie, D. GEOPHYSICS: Earth Under Strain. Science 2000, 290, 1514–1515.
A journal article with 3 authors
Maertens, G.N.; Hare, S.; Cherepanov, P. The Mechanism of Retroviral Integration from X-Ray Structures of Its Key Intermediates. Nature 2010, 468, 326–329.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sokolovski, S.G.; Zolotovskaya, S.A.; Goltsov, A.; Pourreyron, C.; South, A.P.; Rafailov, E.U. Infrared Laser Pulse Triggers Increased Singlet Oxygen Production in Tumour Cells. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3484.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gwynne, P. World Religions in Practice; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2017; ISBN 9781119145998.
An edited book
Embedded Computer Systems: Architectures, Modeling, and Simulation: 9th International Workshop, SAMOS 2009, Samos, Greece, July 20-23, 2009. Proceedings; Bertels, K., Dimopoulos, N., Silvano, C., Wong, S., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; Vol. 5657; ISBN 9783642031373.
A chapter in an edited book
Aussel, J.-D.; d’Annoville, J.; Castillo, L.; Durand, S.; Fabre, T.; Lu, K.; Ali, A. Smart Cards and Remote Entrusting. In Future of Trust in Computing: Proceedings of the First International Conference Future of Trust in Computing 2008; Gawrock, D., Reimer, H., Sadeghi, A.-R., Vishik, C., Eds.; Vieweg+Teubner: Wiesbaden, 2009; pp. 38–45 ISBN 9783834807946.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease.

Blog post
Luntz, S. New Evidence Suggests Tyrannosaurus Rex Was A Cannibal (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Consistent Criteria Are Needed To Assess Small-Business Innovation Initiatives; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1981;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Louviere, E.C. Bonds Behind Bars: The Impact of Program Participation on Interpersonal Inmate Connections in Louisiana State Penitentiary. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana: Lafayette, LA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. For 239th-Ranked Player, Faith in Qualifying Pays Off. New York Times 2017, D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
AbbreviationTrop. Med. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (online)2414-6366

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