How to format your references using the Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldstein, L. US election: Know your representatives. Nature 2012, 489, 494–495.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thompson, J.N.; Cunningham, B.M. Geographic structure and dynamics of coevolutionary selection. Nature 2002, 417, 735–738.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gómez, J.M.; Verdú, M.; Perfectti, F. Ecological interactions are evolutionarily conserved across the entire tree of life. Nature 2010, 465, 918–921.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zyryanova, A.F.; Weis, F.; Faille, A.; Alard, A.A.; Crespillo-Casado, A.; Sekine, Y.; Harding, H.P.; Allen, F.; Parts, L.; Fromont, C.; et al. Binding of ISRIB reveals a regulatory site in the nucleotide exchange factor eIF2B. Science 2018, 359, 1533–1536.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Robinson, T.R. Genetics for Dummies®; Wiley Publishing, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2010; ISBN 9781118269275.
An edited book
Modrow, S. Molecular Virology; Falke, D., Truyen, U., Schätzl, H., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; ISBN 9783642207174.
A chapter in an edited book
Kavousifard, A.; Samet, H. A Novel Method Based on Modified Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm and Artificial Neural Network for Power System Load Prediction. In Emerging Intelligent Technologies in Industry; Ryżko, D., Rybiński, H., Gawrysiak, P., Kryszkiewicz, M., Eds.; Studies in Computational Intelligence; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; pp. 35–46 ISBN 9783642227318.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Researchers Produce The First Synthetic Gasoline From Plants Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Space Shuttle Accident: NASA’s Actions To Address the Presidential Commission Report; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1987;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ichiyama, J. Early goal-directed therapy in adult septic patients. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Loomis, G. Baroque Opera at the Ambronay Festival. New York Times 2012, 0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
AbbreviationTrop. Med. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (online)2414-6366

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