How to format your references using the Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Campbell, C.T. Surface science. Catalysts under pressure. Science 2001, 294, 1471–1472.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sharp, P.A.; Langer, R. Research agenda. Promoting convergence in biomedical science. Science 2011, 333, 527.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zorzi, M.; Priftis, K.; Umiltà, C. Brain damage: neglect disrupts the mental number line. Nature 2002, 417, 138–139.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Van Wassenbergh, S.; Herrel, A.; Adriaens, D.; Huysentruyt, F.; Devaere, S.; Aerts, P. Evolution: a catfish that can strike its prey on land. Nature 2006, 440, 881.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Toptygin, I.N. Electromagnetic Phenomena in Matter; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2015; ISBN 9783527693474.
An edited book
Space,Time and Memory in the Hippocampal Formation; Derdikman, D., Knierim, J.J., Eds.; Springer: Vienna, 2014; ISBN 9783709112915.
A chapter in an edited book
Khan, S.; Malik, A. Environmental and Health Effects of Textile Industry Wastewater. In Environmental Deterioration and Human Health: Natural and anthropogenic determinants; Malik, A., Grohmann, E., Akhtar, R., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2014; pp. 55–71 ISBN 9789400778894.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Watch Satellites and Space Debris Floating Around Earth in Real Time Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office FCC: The Local Multipoint Distribution Service; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1997;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sidwell, M.D. Indirect measures as predictors of social skills observed through means of direct observation. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University: Mississippi State, MS, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Hodara, S. Creatures Great, Small and Imagined. New York Times 2014, CT9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
AbbreviationTrop. Med. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (online)2414-6366

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