How to format your references using the Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
El-Azab, A. Materials science. The statistical mechanics of strain-hardened metals. Science 2008, 320, 1729–1730.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ibata, R.A.; Lewis, G.F. The cosmic web in our own backyard. Science 2008, 319, 50–52.
A journal article with 3 authors
Donner, S.D.; Kandlikar, M.; Zerriffi, H. Environment and development. Preparing to manage climate change financing. Science 2011, 334, 908–909.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Suzuki, S.; Shuto, T.; Sato, T.; Kaneko, M.; Takada, T.; Suico, M.A.; Cyr, D.M.; Suzuki, H.; Kai, H. Inhibition of post-translational N-glycosylation by HRD1 that controls the fate of ABCG5/8 transporter. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4258.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aubrey, S.B. The Profitable Hobby Farm; Wiley Publishing, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2010; ISBN 9781118265765.
An edited book
Cebollero, M. Pro T-SQL Programmer’s Guide; Natarajan, J., Coles, M., Eds.; 4th Edition.; Apress: Berkeley, CA, 2015; ISBN 9781484201466.
A chapter in an edited book
De Petro, P.; Battiston, B.; Matteotti, R.; Petraz, M.; Molino, D. Omero: diafisi. In Traumatologia scheletrica: Imaging integrato clinico-radiologico; Faletti, C., Ed.; Springer: Milano, 2016; pp. 81–97 ISBN 9788847057319.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease.

Blog post
Evans, K. British Expedition Gets Go-Ahead To Look For “Missing” Meteorites In Antarctica Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Success Depends Upon Strong Management and Structured Approach; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1997;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ma, Y. Vesicular Stomatitis Virus as a Vector to Deliver Virus-Like Particles of Human Norovirus: A New Live Vectored Vaccine for Human Norovirus. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University: Columbus, OH, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. T’s Not Crossed in Community College Tuition. New York Times 2007, LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
AbbreviationTrop. Med. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (online)2414-6366

Other styles