How to format your references using the Twentieth-Century Music citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Twentieth-Century Music. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kuper, Adam. ‘Obituary: Claude Lévi-Strauss (1908-2009)’. Nature. 462/7275 (2009), 862.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grande, Cristina, and Nipam H. Patel. ‘Nodal signalling is involved in left-right asymmetry in snails’. Nature. 457/7232 (2009), 1007–11.
A journal article with 3 authors
Visser, Katherine, Robert Thunell, and Lowell Stott. ‘Magnitude and timing of temperature change in the Indo-Pacific warm pool during deglaciation’. Nature. 421/6919 (2003), 152–55.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Cheng, Y. C., S. Kicas, J. Trull, M. Peckus, C. Cojocaru, R. Vilaseca, R. Drazdys, and K. Staliunas. ‘Flat focusing mirror’. Scientific Reports. 4 (2014), 6326.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Purkis, Samuel, and Victor Klemas. Remote Sensing and Global Environmental Change. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2011.
An edited book
Li, Simon. 3D TCAD Simulation for Semiconductor Processes, Devices and Optoelectronics, 1sted. ed. Yue Fu. New York, NY: Springer, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Vrettaros, J., A. Leros, K. Hrissagis-Chrysagis, and A. Drigas. ‘The Problem of Knowledge Elicitation from the Expert’s Point of View’. eds. Dirk Ifenthaler, Pablo Pirnay-Dummer, and Norbert M. Seel, in Computer-Based Diagnostics and Systematic Analysis of Knowledge. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2010. 61–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Twentieth-Century Music.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. ‘New Breakthrough In Lithium-Oxygen Battery Technology’. IFLScience. IFLScience, 30 October 2015. (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Process by Which Mergers of Local Telephone Companies Are Reviewed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, August 20, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kluck, Marielos C. ‘You are What You Read: Participation and Emancipation Problematized in Habacuc’s “Exposición #1”’. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira, Susan. ‘America’s Tea Culture Blossoms’. New York Times4 May 2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleTwentieth-Century Music
ISSN (print)1478-5722
ISSN (online)1478-5730

Other styles