How to format your references using the Twentieth-Century Music citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Twentieth-Century Music. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Basu, Paroma. ‘Forgotten lessons’. Nature. 466/7304 (2010), S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Norenzayan, Ara, and Azim F. Shariff. ‘The origin and evolution of religious prosociality’. Science (New York, N.Y.). 322/5898 (2008), 58–62.
A journal article with 3 authors
Locher, Kaspar P., Allen T. Lee, and Douglas C. Rees. ‘The E. coli BtuCD structure: a framework for ABC transporter architecture and mechanism’. Science (New York, N.Y.). 296/5570 (2002), 1091–98.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Qin, Wei, Maogang Gong, Tejas Shastry, Mark C. Hersam, and Shenqiang Ren. ‘Charge-transfer induced magnetic field effects of nano-carbon heterojunctions’. Scientific Reports. 4 (2014), 6126.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pardoux, Étienne. Markov Processes and Applications: Algorithms, Networks, Genome and Finance. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2008.
An edited book
Avella, Adolfo, and Ferdinando Mancini, eds. Strongly Correlated Systems: Experimental Techniques, vol. clxxx. Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Bresciani, Riccardo, and Andrew Butterfield. ‘A Probabilistic Theory of Designs Based on Distributions’. eds. Burkhart Wolff, Marie-Claude Gaudel, and Abderrahmane Feliachi, in Unifying Theories of Programming: 4th International Symposium, UTP 2012, Paris, France, August 27-28, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013. 105–23.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Twentieth-Century Music.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. ‘Why We Mustn’t Assume Smoking And Drinking Only Leads To Certain Cancers’. IFLScience. IFLScience, 12 May 2015. (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Line-Item Control of Contractors’ Independent Research and Development and Bid and Proposal Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, December 10, 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sadr, Ehsanee Ian. ‘To whisper in the king’s ear: Economists in Pahlavi and Islamic Iran’. Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwirtz, Michael. ‘Two Ex-Correction Officials Deny Clearing Trips to Maine’. New York Times8 May 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleTwentieth-Century Music
ISSN (print)1478-5722
ISSN (online)1478-5730

Other styles