How to format your references using the Twentieth-Century Music citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Twentieth-Century Music. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gammon, Katharine. ‘Gene therapy: editorial control’. Nature. 515/7526 (2014), S11-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cymes, Gisela D., and Claudio Grosman. ‘Tunable pKa values and the basis of opposite charge selectivities in nicotinic-type receptors’. Nature. 474/7352 (2011), 526–30.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vander Heiden, Matthew G., Lewis C. Cantley, and Craig B. Thompson. ‘Understanding the Warburg effect: the metabolic requirements of cell proliferation’. Science (New York, N.Y.). 324/5930 (2009), 1029–33.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wada, Haruka, Kyoko Masuda, Rumi Satoh, Kiyokazu Kakugawa, Tomokatsu Ikawa, Yoshimoto Katsura, and Hiroshi Kawamoto. ‘Adult T-cell progenitors retain myeloid potential’. Nature. 452/7188 (2008), 768–72.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Speight, James G. Coal-Fired Power Generation Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013.
An edited book
Zohuri, Bahman. Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of Nuclear Reactors, 1st ed. 2015ed. ed. Nima Fathi. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Panasyuk, Mikhail I. ‘The Ion Radiation Belts: Experiments and Models’. ed. Ioannis A. Daglis, in Effects of Space Weather on Technology Infrastructure. NATO Science Series II: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2005. 65–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Twentieth-Century Music.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. ‘Spinal “Mini-Brain” Assists In Balancing On Ice’. IFLScience. IFLScience, 30 January 2015. (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Organizational Transformation: A Framework for Assessing and Improving Enterprise Architecture Management (Version 2.0) (Supersedes GAO-03-584G). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, August 5, 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Phongprasert, Angela V. ‘MSW students’ perceived knowledge and perceptions of effectiveness of the child welfare system’. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dorman, John L. ‘How the Writer Cathy Salustri Found “Old Flordia.”’ New York Times12 January 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference Katharine Gammon, ‘Gene therapy: editorial control’, Nature. 515/7526 (2014), S11-3..
This sentence cites two references Katharine Gammon, ‘Gene therapy: editorial control’, Nature. 515/7526 (2014), S11-3; Gisela D. Cymes and Claudio Grosman, ‘Tunable pKa values and the basis of opposite charge selectivities in nicotinic-type receptors’, Nature. 474/7352 (2011), 526–30..

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors:
  • Three authors:
  • 4 or more authors: Haruka Wada et al., ‘Adult T-cell progenitors retain myeloid potential’, Nature. 452/7188 (2008), 768–72.

About the journal

Full journal titleTwentieth-Century Music
ISSN (print)1478-5722
ISSN (online)1478-5730

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