How to format your references using the Twentieth-Century Music citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Twentieth-Century Music. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hallett, M. ‘Transcranial magnetic stimulation and the human brain’. Nature. 406/6792 (2000), 147–50.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ebert, Daniel H., and Michael E. Greenberg. ‘Activity-dependent neuronal signalling and autism spectrum disorder’. Nature. 493/7432 (2013), 327–37.
A journal article with 3 authors
Batey, Robert T., Sunny D. Gilbert, and Rebecca K. Montange. ‘Structure of a natural guanine-responsive riboswitch complexed with the metabolite hypoxanthine’. Nature. 432/7015 (2004), 411–15.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Weisberg, Joel M., Simon Johnston, Bärbel Koribalski, and Snezana Stanimirovic. ‘Discovery of pulsed OH maser emission stimulated by a pulsar’. Science (New York, N.Y.). 309/5731 (2005), 106–10.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Soustelle, Michel. Phase Transformations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2016.
An edited book
Noda, Masaki, ed. Mechanosensing Biology. Tokyo: Springer Japan, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Carr, Caleb T. ‘An Uncertainty Reduction Approach to Applicant Information-Seeking in Social Media: Effects on Attributions and Hiring’. eds. Richard N. Landers and Gordon B. Schmidt, in Social Media in Employee Selection and Recruitment: Theory, Practice, and Current Challenges. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016. 59–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Twentieth-Century Music.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. ‘Yes There’s Hope, But Treating Spinal Injuries With Stem Cells Is Not A Reality Yet’. IFLScience. IFLScience, 9 February 2017. (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Support for Restaurant Sanitation Found Largely Ineffective. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, December 8, 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Long, Jennifer J. ‘Comparison of health-promoting lifestyles in adult patients with and without primary care provider continuity’. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. ‘On the Streets of New York, Cheers for the World’. New York Times12 June 2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleTwentieth-Century Music
ISSN (print)1478-5722
ISSN (online)1478-5730

Other styles