How to format your references using the Twentieth-Century Music citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Twentieth-Century Music. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranokski, David. ‘Lack of infrastructure hampers virus monitoring’. Nature. 427/6974 (2004), 472.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boller, Thomas, and Sheng Yang He. ‘Innate immunity in plants: an arms race between pattern recognition receptors in plants and effectors in microbial pathogens’. Science (New York, N.Y.). 324/5928 (2009), 742–44.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ugalde, Juan A., Belinda S. W. Chang, and Mikhail V. Matz. ‘Evolution of coral pigments recreated’. Science (New York, N.Y.). 305/5689 (2004), 1433.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Liao, Shanhui, Wen Zhang, Kai Fan, Kaiqin Ye, Xuecheng Zhang, Jiahai Zhang, Chao Xu, and Xiaoming Tu. ‘Ionic strength-dependent conformations of a ubiquitin-like small archaeal modifier protein (SAMP2) from Haloferax volcanii’. Scientific Reports. 3 (2013), 2136.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Daries, Hayley. Nutrition for Sport and Exercise. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2012.
An edited book
Herkersdorf, Andreas, Kay Römer, and Uwe Brinkschulte, eds. Architecture of Computing Systems – ARCS 2012: 25th International Conference, Munich, Germany, February 28 - March 2, 2012. Proceedings, vol. . Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Leavitt, Steven D., and Larry L. St. Clair. ‘Bio-monitoring in Western North America: What Can Lichens Tell Us About Ecological Disturbances?’ eds. Dalip Kumar Upreti, Pradeep K. Divakar, Vertika Shukla, and Rajesh Bajpai, in Recent Advances in Lichenology: Modern Methods and Approaches in Biomonitoring and Bioprospection, Volume 1. New Delhi: Springer India, 2015. 119–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Twentieth-Century Music.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. ‘These Are Some Of Rosetta’s Last Stunning Images Of Comet 67P’. IFLScience. IFLScience, 21 October 2016. (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Maritime Administration’s Evaluation of the End Products of Research and Development Contracts with Private, Profitmaking Firms. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, January 27, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Louviere, Elizabeth C. ‘Bonds Behind Bars: The Impact of Program Participation on Interpersonal Inmate Connections in Louisiana State Penitentiary’. Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, Mary. ‘Solving a Dress-Design Sudoku’. New York Times20 May 2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference David Cyranokski, ‘Lack of infrastructure hampers virus monitoring’, Nature. 427/6974 (2004), 472..
This sentence cites two references David Cyranokski, ‘Lack of infrastructure hampers virus monitoring’, Nature. 427/6974 (2004), 472; Thomas Boller and Sheng Yang He, ‘Innate immunity in plants: an arms race between pattern recognition receptors in plants and effectors in microbial pathogens’, Science (New York, N.Y.). 324/5928 (2009), 742–44..

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors:
  • Three authors:
  • 4 or more authors: Shanhui Liao et al., ‘Ionic strength-dependent conformations of a ubiquitin-like small archaeal modifier protein (SAMP2) from Haloferax volcanii’, Scientific Reports. 3 (2013), 2136.

About the journal

Full journal titleTwentieth-Century Music
ISSN (print)1478-5722
ISSN (online)1478-5730

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