How to format your references using the DECISION - Indian Institute of Management Calcutta citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for DECISION - Indian Institute of Management Calcutta. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zapperi S (2010) Physics. Looking at how things slip. Science 330:184–185
A journal article with 2 authors
Laurie B, Doctorow C (2012) Computing: secure the internet. Nature 491:325–326
A journal article with 3 authors
Chookajorn T, Murdoch HA, Schuh CA (2012) Design of stable nanocrystalline alloys. Science 337:951–954
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Noonan FP, Recio JA, Takayama H, et al (2001) Neonatal sunburn and melanoma in mice. Nature 413:271–272

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McKean J (2014) Customer’s New Voice. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Yorke J (2016) Learning Standards and the Assessment of Quality in Higher Education: Contested Policy Trajectories. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Papaioannou G, Tsiokos D, Fiedler G, et al (2011) Dynamic Radiography Imaging as a Tool in the Design and Validation of a Novel Intelligent Amputee Socket. In: Tavares JMRS, Jorge RMN (eds) Computational Vision and Medical Image Processing: Recent Trends. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 91–112

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for DECISION - Indian Institute of Management Calcutta.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) The Antibodies That Were Invented To Help Immunologists Find GOD. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015) Environmental Satellites: Improvements Needed in NOAA’s Mitigation Strategies as It Prepares for Potential Satellite Coverage Gaps. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Walsh MA (2010) Passage. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ (2017) SoftBank Leads Big Stake In Virtual-Reality Designer. New York Times B7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zapperi 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Zapperi 2010; Laurie and Doctorow 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Laurie and Doctorow 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Noonan et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleDECISION - Indian Institute of Management Calcutta
ISSN (print)0304-0941
ISSN (online)2197-1722

Other styles