How to format your references using the Journal of Photonics for Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Photonics for Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Yamaguchi, “Sex differences in vocal learning in birds,” Nature 411(6835), 257–258 (2001).
A journal article with 2 authors
E. H. Davidson and D. H. Erwin, “Gene regulatory networks and the evolution of animal body plans,” Science 311(5762), 796–800 (2006).
A journal article with 3 authors
T. R. Brummelkamp, R. Bernards, and R. Agami, “A system for stable expression of short interfering RNAs in mammalian cells,” Science 296(5567), 550–553 (2002).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R. B. Bass et al., “Crystal structure of Escherichia coli MscS, a voltage-modulated and mechanosensitive channel,” Science 298(5598), 1582–1587 (2002).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Brendel, Thin-Film Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG (2005).
An edited book
R. Marín et al., Eds., Current Topics in Artificial Intelligence: 11th Conference of the Spanish Association for Artificial Intelligence, CAEPIA 2005, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, November 16-18, 2005, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2006).
A chapter in an edited book
G. L. Rogova, “Information Quality in Information Fusion and Decision Making with Applications to Crisis Management,” in Fusion Methodologies in Crisis Management: Higher Level Fusion and Decision Making, G. Rogova and P. Scott, Eds., pp. 65–86, Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Photonics for Energy.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, “‘Quantum Entangled’ Laser Pointers Could Double Data Speed,” IFLScience, 30 October 2015 (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Policies on U.S. Citizens Studying Medicine Abroad Need Review and Reappraisal,” HRD-81-32, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1980).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Bhatnagar, “Buckling and weight optimization for non-coupled antisymmetric laminates,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach (2012).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Kelly, “Keep ’Em Coming,” in New York Times, p. A23 (2007).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Photonics for Energy
ISSN (online)1947-7988
ScopeRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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