How to format your references using the Journal of Photonics for Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Photonics for Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Müller-Wille, “Plant taxonomy: The love of plants,” Nature 446(7133), 268 (2007).
A journal article with 2 authors
C. Pasare and R. Medzhitov, “Control of B-cell responses by Toll-like receptors,” Nature 438(7066), 364–368 (2005).
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Sahu, S. Sukumaran, and A. K. Bera, “Pannexins form gap junctions with electrophysiological and pharmacological properties distinct from connexins,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4955 (2014).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Li et al., “Advanced cardiac morphogenesis does not require heart tube fusion,” Science 305(5690), 1619–1622 (2004).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B. Halpert, Auditing Cloud Computing, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2011).
An edited book
J. Varon, Acute and Critical Care Formulas and Laboratory Values, R. E. Fromm Jr., Ed., Springer, New York, NY (2014).
A chapter in an edited book
J. Bertling and S. Rommel, “A Critical View of 3D Printing Regarding Industrial Mass Customization Versus Individual Desktop Fabrication,” in The Decentralized and Networked Future of Value Creation: 3D Printing and its Implications for Society, Industry, and Sustainable Development, J.-P. Ferdinand, U. Petschow, and S. Dickel, Eds., pp. 75–105, Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Photonics for Energy.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “New Horizons Spots Possible Polar Ice Cap On Pluto,” IFLScience, 1 May 2015 (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Head Start Programs: Participant Characteristics, Services, and Funding,” HEHS-98-65, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1998).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. M. McKelvey, “Relationships between attitudes of school-based administrators and inclusion practices of students with autism/Asperger’s syndrome,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix (2008).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
E. Weil, “A Hole in the Heart,” in New York Times, p. MM42 (2015).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Photonics for Energy
ISSN (online)1947-7988
ScopeRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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