How to format your references using the Journal of Photonics for Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Photonics for Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. M. Thomas, “Catalysis: Tens of thousands of atoms replaced by one,” Nature 525(7569), 325–326 (2015).
A journal article with 2 authors
M. A. Palmer and S. Filoso, “Restoration of ecosystem services for environmental markets,” Science 325(5940), 575–576 (2009).
A journal article with 3 authors
P. A. Beachy, S. S. Karhadkar, and D. M. Berman, “Mending and malignancy,” Nature 431(7007), 402 (2004).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Mora et al., “Patterns and processes in reef fish diversity,” Nature 421(6926), 933–936 (2003).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Schwedt, Experimente rund um die Kunststoffe des Alltags, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany (2013).
An edited book
K. E. Cannon and T. J. Hudzik, Eds., Suicide: Phenomenology and Neurobiology, Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014).
A chapter in an edited book
S. Doumit and A. Minai, “Exploration for Agents with Different Personalities in Unknown Environments,” in Unifying Themes in Complex Systems VII: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Complex Systems, A. A. Minai, D. Braha, and Y. Bar-Yam, Eds., pp. 44–53, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2012).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Photonics for Energy.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Fat And Sugar-Heavy Diet Harms Your Brain – And Makes You Keep On Eating,” IFLScience, 21 January 2015, <; (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Organizational Structure and Information Systems Used To Manage the Army’s Depot-Level Maintenance Programs,” 103401, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1977).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Z. Daczo, “Wage inequality and the gender wage gap: Are American women swimming upstream?,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park (2012).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
D. Bilefsky, “Plan to Withdraw From European Nuclear Treaty Stirs Alarm in Britain,” in New York Times, p. A9 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Photonics for Energy
ISSN (online)1947-7988
ScopeRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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