How to format your references using the Turkish Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Turkish Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Price, Sarah L. “Chemistry. Lattice Energy, Nailed?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 345, no. 6197 (August 8, 2014): 619–20.
A journal article with 2 authors
Merad, Miriam, and Hélène Salmon. “Cancer: A Dendritic-Cell Brake on Antitumour Immunity.” Nature 523, no. 7560 (July 16, 2015): 294–95.
A journal article with 3 authors
Amin, M., M. Farhat, and H. Baǧcı. “A Dynamically Reconfigurable Fano Metamaterial through Graphene Tuning for Switching and Sensing Applications.” Scientific Reports 3 (2013): 2105.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Chen, Shaoqiang, Masahiro Yoshita, Akira Ishikawa, Toshimitsu Mochizuki, Shun Maruyama, Hidefumi Akiyama, Yuhei Hayamizu, Loren N. Pfeiffer, and Ken W. West. “Intrinsic Radiative Lifetime Derived via Absorption Cross Section of One-Dimensional Excitons.” Scientific Reports 3 (2013): 1941.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hagen, Jens. Chemiereaktoren. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2017.
An edited book
Fabbro, Sandro, ed. Mega Transport Infrastructure Planning: European Corridors in Local-Regional Perspective. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Olson, Jo Clay, Paul White, and Len Sparrow. “Influence of Lesson Study on Teachers’ Mathematics Pedagogy.” In Lesson Study Research and Practice in Mathematics Education: Learning Together, edited by Lynn C. Hart, Alice S. Alston, and Aki Murata, 39–57. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2011.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Turkish Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. “The ‘Coldest Place in the Universe’ Is Shaped Like a Ghost!” IFLScience. IFLScience, October 25, 2013.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Narcotic Addiction Treatment and Rehabilitation Programs in New York City.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, April 11, 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Osterhout, Heidi Lynn. “No More ‘Mad Money’: Salvaging the Commander’s Emergency Response Program.” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, Kelly. “Pardon My Dust? Neighbors of a College Project Say No.” New York Times, July 15, 2001.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleTurkish Studies
ISSN (print)1468-3849
ISSN (online)1743-9663
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles