How to format your references using the Turkish Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Turkish Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalton, Rex. “California Stem-Cell Institute Fights Legal Challenges.” Nature 435, no. 7042 (June 2, 2005): 544.
A journal article with 2 authors
Williamson, Robert, and Rony Duncan. “DNA Testing for All.” Nature 418, no. 6898 (August 8, 2002): 585–86.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cochran, William W., Henrik Mouritsen, and Martin Wikelski. “Migrating Songbirds Recalibrate Their Magnetic Compass Daily from Twilight Cues.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 304, no. 5669 (April 16, 2004): 405–8.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Taddei, Angela, Griet Van Houwe, Florence Hediger, Veronique Kalck, Fabien Cubizolles, Heiko Schober, and Susan M. Gasser. “Nuclear Pore Association Confers Optimal Expression Levels for an Inducible Yeast Gene.” Nature 441, no. 7094 (June 8, 2006): 774–78.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Levene, Mark. An Introduction to Search Engines and Web Navigation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010.
An edited book
Tweedale, Jeffrey W. Embedded Automation in Human-Agent Environment. Edited by Lakhmi C. Jain. Vol. 10. Adaptation, Learning, and Optimization. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Féray, Valentin, Pierre-Loïc Méliot, and Ashkan Nikeghbali. “An Extended Deviation Result from Bounds on Cumulants.” In Mod-ϕ Convergence: Normality Zones and Precise Deviations, edited by Pierre-Loïc Méliot and Ashkan Nikeghbali, 51–58. SpringerBriefs in Probability and Mathematical Statistics. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Turkish Studies.

Blog post
Evans, Katy. “US Surgeon General Says Drug Addiction Is A Disease And Should Be Treated As Any Other.” IFLScience. IFLScience, November 18, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Maritime Administration: Ship Disposal Program Needs Improved Communications and Updated Strategic Plan.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, February 12, 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Webster, Wayne P. “The Influence of Philanthropy and Administrative Decision-Making Models on a Liberal Arts College’s Strategic Planning Process: A Case Study.” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. “Suddenly, San Francisco’s a Baseball Town.” New York Times, October 27, 2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleTurkish Studies
ISSN (print)1468-3849
ISSN (online)1743-9663
Political Science and International Relations

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