How to format your references using the Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Baker M. Structural biology: The gatekeepers revealed. Nature. 2010;465(7299):823-826.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Miller L, Douglas BC. Mass and volume contributions to twentieth-century global sea level rise. Nature. 2004;428(6981):406-409.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Ambrose KV, Koppenhöfer AM, Belanger FC. Horizontal gene transfer of a bacterial insect toxin gene into the Epichloë fungal symbionts of grasses. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5562.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Goodnow CC, Sprent J, Fazekas de St Groth B, Vinuesa CG. Cellular and genetic mechanisms of self tolerance and autoimmunity. Nature. 2005;435(7042):590-597.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Dexter AL. Monitoring and Control of Information-Poor Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1.
Böck R, Bonin F, Campbell N, Poppe R, eds. Multimodal Analyses Enabling Artificial Agents in Human-Machine Interaction: Second International Workshop, MA3HMI 2014, Held in Conjunction with INTERSPEECH 2014, Singapore, Singapore, September 14, 2014, Revised Selected Papers. Vol 8757. Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Cleophas TJ, Zwinderman AH. Log Likelihood Ratio Tests for Safety Data Analysis. In: Zwinderman AH, ed. Statistics Applied to Clinical Studies. Springer Netherlands; 2012:61-68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Company Claims Their Flying Car Will Hit Markets In Two Years. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Interstate Commerce Commission: Key Issues Need to Be Addressed in Determining Future of ICC’s Regulatory Functions. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Warner T. California Assembly Bill 2404 Fair Play in Community Sports Act Compliance Procedures Manual. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Brantley B. So Smart (but Truly Vile). New York Times. December 13, 2016:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleTurkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
ISSN (print)2452-2473
Scope

Other styles