How to format your references using the Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ball P. Science & music: facing the music. Nature. 2008;453(7192):160-162.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gubin MM, Schreiber RD. CANCER. The odds of immunotherapy success. Science. 2015;350(6257):158-159.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kulmala M, Pirjola L, Makela JM. Stable sulphate clusters as a source of new atmospheric particles. Nature. 2000;404(6773):66-69.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ohya T, Miaczynska M, Coskun U, et al. Reconstitution of Rab- and SNARE-dependent membrane fusion by synthetic endosomes. Nature. 2009;459(7250):1091-1097.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wang J, Wang Q. Body Area Communications. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Bishop R, ed. Beyond Conventional Boundaries: Uncertainty in Research and Practice with Children. Vol 13. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Krishnaswamy S, Markov IL, Hayes JP. Signature-Based Reliability Analysis. In: Markov IL, Hayes JP, eds. Design, Analysis and Test of Logic Circuits Under Uncertainty. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013:63-91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
Luntz S. Scientists Create Diamond Battery Fueled By Nuclear Waste. IFLScience. Published November 28, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Comments on Energy Research and Development Administration’s Proposed Arrangement for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Demonstration Plant Project. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kratchman J. Predicting Chronic Non-Cancer Toxicity Levels from Short-Term Toxicity Data. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Borjas G. The Immigration Debate We Need. New York Times. February 27, 2017:A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleTurkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
ISSN (print)2452-2473

Other styles