How to format your references using the Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adler M. Structural biology. How a neurotoxin survives. Science. 2012;335(6071):928-929.
A journal article with 2 authors
Modlin RL, Bloom BR. Immunology. Chip shots--will functional genomics get functional? Science. 2001;294(5543):799-801.
A journal article with 3 authors
Froemke RC, Poo MM, Dan Y. Spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity depends on dendritic location. Nature. 2005;434(7030):221-225.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bao H, Sun T, Kohl I, Peng Y. Comment on “Early Archaean microorganisms preferred elemental sulfur, not sulfate.” Science. 2008;319(5868):1336; author reply 1336.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hens HSLC. Performance Based Building Design 2. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2012.
An edited book
Güllich A, Krüger M, eds. Sport: Das Lehrbuch Für Das Sportstudium. 1st ed. Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Arinaminpathy N, Metcalf CJE, Grenfell BT. Viral Dynamics and Mathematical Models. In: Kaslow RA, Stanberry LR, Le Duc JW, eds. Viral Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and Control. Springer US; 2014:81-96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
Fang J. Britain Announces Creation Of World’s Largest Marine Reserve. IFLScience. Published March 19, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Regulatory Policies. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reller TL. Exploring Differences in Teacher Attitudes and Instructional Strategies between Traditional and Block Schedule High Schools: A Comparison of Two Small Schools. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. After Battle of Strategy, Two Managers Are Satisfied With Their Moves. New York Times. October 17, 2016:D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleTurkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
ISSN (print)2452-2473

Other styles