How to format your references using the Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Swift J. The point of it all. Science. 2014;346(6211):882.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cardoso da Silva JM, Tabarelli M. Tree species impoverishment and the future flora of the Atlantic forest of northeast Brazil. Nature. 2000;404(6773):72-74.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xu X, Su Y, Fan ZH. Cotinine concentration in serum correlates with tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in mice. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3864.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mukhopadhyay S, Kim BS, Chipman PR, Rossmann MG, Kuhn RJ. Structure of West Nile virus. Science. 2003;302(5643):248.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cheremisinoff NP, Davletshin A. A Guide to Safe Material and Chemical Handling. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Amara SG, Bamberg E, Fleischmann BK, et al., eds. Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology 161. Vol 161. Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Ansari N, Zhang J. Media Access Control and Resource Allocation in EPON and 10G-EPON. In: Zhang J, ed. Media Access Control and Resource Allocation: For Next Generation Passive Optical Networks. SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology. Springer; 2013:29-51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
Fang J. Venom Helped Worm-Eating Snails Hunt Fish. IFLScience. Published April 14, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Student Loans: Default Rates at Historically Black Colleges and Universities. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boothe CS. The Effects of Prototype Medium on the User’s Overall Perception of Usability and Ability to Detect Usability Flaws. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon MR. U.S. Urges Iraqi Kurds To Put Off Referendum. New York Times. August 23, 2017:A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleTurkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
ISSN (print)2452-2473

Other styles