How to format your references using the Cancer Nanotechnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Nanotechnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wunsch C. Oceanography. What is the thermohaline circulation? Science. 2002 Nov 8;298(5596):1179–81.
A journal article with 2 authors
Klankermayer J, Leitner W. CHEMISTRY. Love at second sight for CO₂ and H₂ in organic synthesis. Science. 2015 Nov 6;350(6261):629–30.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mossinger J, White M, Goymer P. Coastal regions. Nature. 2013 Dec 5;504(7478):35.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
de Noronha CM, Sherman MP, Lin HW, Cavrois MV, Moir RD, Goldman RD, et al. Dynamic disruptions in nuclear envelope architecture and integrity induced by HIV-1 Vpr. Science. 2001 Nov 2;294(5544):1105–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cumming D. Private Equity. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Grossmann G, Zardini C, editors. The ELFNET Book on Failure Mechanisms, Testing Methods, and Quality Issues of Lead-Free Solder Interconnects. London: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Luo T, Chen S, Xu G, Zhou J. Sentiment Analysis. In: Chen S, Xu G, Zhou J, editors. Trust-based Collective View Prediction. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 53–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Nanotechnology.

Blog post
Andrews R. “All Of Science Is A Metaphor”: Deepak Chopra’s Curious Interview With IFLScience [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. JFMIP News: A Newsletter for Government Financial Managers, Fall 1997, Vol. 9, No. 3. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Jan. Report No.: 159627.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vado PF. Foster Care Independence Act of 1999: A policy analysis [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller B, Baker AL. A Grim Measure of Equality for Women in Blue. New York Times. 2017 Jul 11;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wunsch 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Klankermayer and Leitner 2015; Wunsch 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Klankermayer and Leitner 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (de Noronha et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Nanotechnology
AbbreviationCancer Nanotechnol.
ISSN (print)1868-6958
ISSN (online)1868-6966
ScopePhysical and Theoretical Chemistry
Biomedical Engineering
Pharmaceutical Science

Other styles