How to format your references using the Cancer Nanotechnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Nanotechnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McKay R. Paleoclimate. Did Antarctica initiate the ice age cycles? Science. 2014 Nov 14;346(6211):812–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Moore EB, Molinero V. Structural transformation in supercooled water controls the crystallization rate of ice. Nature. 2011 Nov 23;479(7374):506–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bongard J, Zykov V, Lipson H. Resilient machines through continuous self-modeling. Science. 2006 Nov 17;314(5802):1118–21.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Miller KG, Kominz MA, Browning JV, Wright JD, Mountain GS, Katz ME, et al. The Phanerozoic record of global sea-level change. Science. 2005 Nov 25;310(5752):1293–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gray R. A History of American Literature. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Moritz EF, Haake S, editors. The Engineering of Sport 6: Volume 3: Developments for Innovation. New York, NY: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
De Vries J, De Jongste MJL, Spincemaille G, Staal MJ. Spinal cord stimulation for ischemic heart disease and peripheral vascular disease. In: Pickard JD, Akalan N, Rocco CD, Dolenc VV, Antunes JL, Mooij JJA, et al., editors. Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery. Vienna: Springer; 2007. p. 63–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Nanotechnology.

Blog post
Andrew E. The Bionic Man is No Longer Science Fiction. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2013.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Based Infrared System High Program and its Alternative. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Sep. Report No.: GAO-07-1088R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dennard B. The Impact of Racial Centrality on Authenticity and the Race-Based Impression Management Strategies of Black Management Consultants [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky L. Sound Garden. New York Times. 2012 Apr 1;M278.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McKay 2014).
This sentence cites two references (McKay 2014; Moore and Molinero 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Moore and Molinero 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Miller et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Nanotechnology
AbbreviationCancer Nanotechnol.
ISSN (print)1868-6958
ISSN (online)1868-6966
ScopePhysical and Theoretical Chemistry
Biomedical Engineering
Pharmaceutical Science

Other styles