How to format your references using the Tsaqafah citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tsaqafah. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Oh, Seongshik. vol. 340, no. 6129. 2013, “Physics. The complete quantum Hall trio”, Science (New York, N.Y.). pp. 153–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Punnoose, Alexander and Alexander M. Finkel’stein. vol. 310, no. 5746. 2005, “Metal-insulator transition in disordered two-dimensional electron systems”, Science (New York, N.Y.). pp. 289–91.
A journal article with 3 authors
Obata, Yayoi, Tomohiro Kono, and Izuho Hatada. vol. 418, no. 6897. 2002, “Gene silencing: maturation of mouse fetal germ cells in vitro”, Nature. p. 497.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Demetriou, M. et al. vol. 409, no. 6821. 2001, “Negative regulation of T-cell activation and autoimmunity by Mgat5 N-glycosylation”, Nature. pp. 733–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Villalta, Thomas. 2012, The Large-Cap Portfolio, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ehrhardt, Jan and Cristian Lorenz (eds.). 2013, 4D Modeling and Estimation of Respiratory Motion for Radiation Therapy, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ornella, Leonardo, Gerardo Cervigni, and Elizabeth Tapia. ed. by B. Venkateswarlu et al. 2012, “Applications of Machine Learning in Breeding for Stress Tolerance in Maize”, in Crop Stress and its Management: Perspectives and Strategies, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. pp. 163–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tsaqafah.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 4 Aug 2016, “Bees Give Up On Sunflowers That Don’t Face East”, IFLScience, IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/bees-give-up-on-sunflowers-that-dont-face-east/, accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2003, Satellite Communications: Strategic Approach Needed for DOD’s Procurement of Commercial Satellite Bandwidth, no. GAO-04-206, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Washington-Cobb, Shirley L. 2012, “Exploring the Experiences of Former Alternative Education Participants: Case Studies”, Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
LaFRANIERE, Sharon and Andrew W. Lehren. 24 Oct 2015, “The Disproportionate Risk of Driving While Black”, New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference Seongshik Oh, “Physics. The complete quantum Hall trio”, Science (New York, N.Y.), vol. 340, no. 6129 (2013), pp. 153–4, http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1237215..
This sentence cites two references Seongshik Oh, “Physics. The complete quantum Hall trio”, Science (New York, N.Y.), vol. 340, no. 6129 (2013), pp. 153–4, http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1237215; Alexander Punnoose and Alexander M. Finkel’stein, “Metal-insulator transition in disordered two-dimensional electron systems”, Science (New York, N.Y.), vol. 310, no. 5746 (2005), pp. 289–91, http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1115660..

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: Alexander Punnoose and Alexander M. Finkel’stein, “Metal-insulator transition in disordered two-dimensional electron systems”, Science (New York, N.Y.), vol. 310, no. 5746 (2005), pp. 289–91.
  • Three authors: Yayoi Obata, Tomohiro Kono, and Izuho Hatada, “Gene silencing: maturation of mouse fetal germ cells in vitro”, Nature, vol. 418, no. 6897 (2002), p. 497.
  • Four or more authors: M. Demetriou et al., “Negative regulation of T-cell activation and autoimmunity by Mgat5 N-glycosylation”, Nature, vol. 409, no. 6821 (2001), pp. 733–9, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35055582.

About the journal

Full journal titleTsaqafah
AbbreviationTSAQAFAH
ISSN (print)1411-0334
ISSN (online)2460-0008
Scope

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