How to format your references using the Tsaqafah citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tsaqafah. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sethna, James P. vol. 318, no. 5848. 2007, “Materials science. Crackling wires”, Science (New York, N.Y.). pp. 207–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wardil, Lucas and Christoph Hauert. vol. 4. 2014, “Origin and structure of dynamic cooperative networks”, Scientific reports. p. 5725.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huang, Chun Y., Michael A. Ayliffe, and Jeremy N. Timmis. vol. 422, no. 6927. 2003, “Direct measurement of the transfer rate of chloroplast DNA into the nucleus”, Nature. pp. 72–6.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mechsner, F. et al. vol. 414, no. 6859. 2001, “Perceptual basis of bimanual coordination”, Nature. pp. 69–73.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pollak, Peter. 2011, Fine Chemicals, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Impagliazzo, John, Timo Järvi, and Petri Paju (eds.). vol. 303. 2009, History of Nordic Computing 2: Second IFIP WG 9.7 Conference, HiNC2, Turku, Finland, August 21-23, 2007, Revised Selected Papers, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Maes, Roel. ed. by Guido Bertoni and Jean-Sébastien Coron. 2013, “An Accurate Probabilistic Reliability Model for Silicon PUFs”, in Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems - CHES 2013: 15th International Workshop, Santa Barbara, CA, USA, August 20-23, 2013. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. pp. 73–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tsaqafah.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 8 May 2016, “India Is Set To Spend Over $6 Billion On Restoring Their Forests”, IFLScience, IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/indian-government-plans-spend-over-6-billion-reforestation-scheme/, accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2004, Telecommunications: Intelsat Privatization and the Implementation of the ORBIT Act, no. GAO-04-891, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sugawara, Yosei. 2013, “When the Spaniels conquered Central America: Academic English and first year composition instruction”, Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, Kelly. 9 Dec 2001, “The Newest Tower: Working 24/7”, New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference James P. Sethna, “Materials science. Crackling wires”, Science (New York, N.Y.), vol. 318, no. 5848 (2007), pp. 207–8, http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1148507..
This sentence cites two references James P. Sethna, “Materials science. Crackling wires”, Science (New York, N.Y.), vol. 318, no. 5848 (2007), pp. 207–8, http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1148507; Lucas Wardil and Christoph Hauert, “Origin and structure of dynamic cooperative networks”, Scientific reports, vol. 4 (2014), p. 5725, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep05725..

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: Lucas Wardil and Christoph Hauert, “Origin and structure of dynamic cooperative networks”, Scientific reports, vol. 4 (2014), p. 5725.
  • Three authors: Chun Y. Huang, Michael A. Ayliffe, and Jeremy N. Timmis, “Direct measurement of the transfer rate of chloroplast DNA into the nucleus”, Nature, vol. 422, no. 6927 (2003), pp. 72–6.
  • Four or more authors: F. Mechsner et al., “Perceptual basis of bimanual coordination”, Nature, vol. 414, no. 6859 (2001), pp. 69–73, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35102060.

About the journal

Full journal titleTsaqafah
AbbreviationTSAQAFAH
ISSN (print)1411-0334
ISSN (online)2460-0008
Scope

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