How to format your references using the Tsaqafah citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tsaqafah. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chaddah, Praveen. vol. 511, no. 7508. 2014, “Not all plagiarism requires a retraction”, Nature. p. 127.
A journal article with 2 authors
Van Tuyl, Rory and Asya Pereltsvaig. vol. 335, no. 6069. 2012, “Comment on ‘Phonemic diversity supports a serial founder effect model of language expansion from Africa’”, Science (New York, N.Y.). pp. 657; author reply 657.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kalokairinou, Louiza, Heidi Carmen Howard, and Pascal Borry. vol. 346, no. 6207. 2014, “Science and Regulation. Changes on the horizon for consumer genomics in the EU”, Science (New York, N.Y.). pp. 296–8.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kamakoti, Preeti et al. vol. 307, no. 5709. 2005, “Prediction of hydrogen flux through sulfur-tolerant binary alloy membranes”, Science (New York, N.Y.). pp. 569–73.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alacoque, Jean Claude. 2012, Direct Eigen Control for Induction Machines and Synchronous Motors, Chichester, UK: A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Trypuz, Robert (ed.). vol. 1. 2014, Krister Segerberg on Logic of Actions, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Janke, Wolfhard. ed. by H. Fehske, R. Schneider, and A. Weiße. 2008, “Monte Carlo Methods in Classical Statistical Physics”, in Computational Many-Particle Physics, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. pp. 79–140.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tsaqafah.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 17 Jan 2017, “Gene Cernan, The Last Person To Set Foot On The Moon, Dies At 82”, IFLScience, IFLScience., accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1977, Potential Problems That Should Be Considered in Evaluating the Experimental Technology Incentives Program, no. PSAD-77-132, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jategaonkar, Shrikant Prabhakar. 2009, “Two essays on stock repurchases and insider trading”, Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, John. 5 Feb 2017, “TV’s Answer to Dark Days”, New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleTsaqafah
ISSN (print)1411-0334
ISSN (online)2460-0008

Other styles