How to format your references using the Tsaqafah citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tsaqafah. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wang, Nai-Xing. vol. 476, no. 7360. 2011, “China’s chemists should avoid the Vanity Fair”, Nature. p. 253.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang, Jinwei and Adrian R. Ferré-D’Amaré. vol. 500, no. 7462. 2013, “Co-crystal structure of a T-box riboswitch stem I domain in complex with its cognate tRNA”, Nature. pp. 363–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ye, Y., H.H. Meyer, and T.A. Rapoport. vol. 414, no. 6864. 2001, “The AAA ATPase Cdc48/p97 and its partners transport proteins from the ER into the cytosol”, Nature. pp. 652–6.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Späth, Gerald F. et al. vol. 301, no. 5637. 2003, “Persistence without pathology in phosphoglycan-deficient Leishmania major”, Science (New York, N.Y.). pp. 1241–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Recho, Naman. 2012, Fracture Mechanics and Crack Growth, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Fischer, Thomas. ed. by Janet Abrams. 2005, Julie Snow Architects, New York, NY: Princeton Archit. Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Aronow, Mary E. and Arun D. Singh. ed. by Arun D. Singh. 2014, “Ocular Adnexal Lymphoma: Clinical Features and Diagnostic Evaluation”, in Ocular and Adnexal Lymphoma, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. pp. 57–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tsaqafah.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 26 Jan 2017, “Being Naked Is Great For Your Body Image And Satisfaction With Life”, IFLScience, IFLScience., accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988, The Times and Space: An Interview With Michael Collins, no. 137888, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Luce, Gregory R. 2015, “British viola repertoire of the first half of the twentieth century”, Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wakin, Daniel J. and Mary Williams Walsh. 1 Dec 2011, “Other Orchestras Fear Paying Price for Philadelphia Pension Crisis”, New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleTsaqafah
ISSN (print)1411-0334
ISSN (online)2460-0008

Other styles