How to format your references using the Tsaqafah citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tsaqafah. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seitz, F. vol. 403, no. 6769. 2000, “Decline of the generalist”, Nature. p. 483.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reyes, Christopher L. and Geoffrey Chang. vol. 308, no. 5724. 2005, “Structure of the ABC transporter MsbA in complex with ADP.vanadate and lipopolysaccharide”, Science (New York, N.Y.). pp. 1028–31.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kalisz, Susan, Donna W. Vogler, and Kristen M. Hanley. vol. 430, no. 7002. 2004, “Context-dependent autonomous self-fertilization yields reproductive assurance and mixed mating”, Nature. pp. 884–7.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu, Yuanyuan et al. vol. 3. 2013, “Graphene oxide can induce in vitro and in vivo mutagenesis”, Scientific reports. p. 3469.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Guillaume, Philippe. 2006, Music and Acoustics, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Huang, De-Shuang, Kyungsook Han, and Michael Gromiha (eds.). vol. 8590. 2014, Intelligent Computing in Bioinformatics: 10th International Conference, ICIC 2014, Taiyuan, China, August 3-6, 2014. Proceedings, Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Pehrson, Lars. ed. by Lars Pehrson, Lars Oxelheim, and Sverker Gustavsson. 2009, “Significance of the Prohibition of Discrimination on the Grounds of Nationality”, in How Unified Is the European Union?: European Integration Between Visions and Popular Legitimacy, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. pp. 43–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tsaqafah.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 4 Aug 2015, “Evolution Took Many Paths To Building ‘Pygmy’ Bodies”, IFLScience, IFLScience., accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1986, ICBM Modernization: Status, Survivable Basing Issues, and Need To Reestablish a National Consensus, no. NSIAD-86-200, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barbeau, Sean J. 2012, “A Location-Aware Architecture Supporting Intelligent Real-Time Mobile Applications”, Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oppel, Richard A., Jr. and Richard Pérez-Peña. 4 Jun 2016, “Chicago Releases Videos of Police Shootings”, New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleTsaqafah
ISSN (print)1411-0334
ISSN (online)2460-0008

Other styles