How to format your references using the Engineering Failure Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Engineering Failure Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Chipman, Contest puts brakes on carbon capture, Nature. 447 (2007) 1044–1045.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.A. Giljohann, C.A. Mirkin, Drivers of biodiagnostic development, Nature. 462 (2009) 461–464.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. Mili, K. Moissoglu, I.G. Macara, Genome-wide screen reveals APC-associated RNAs enriched in cell protrusions, Nature. 453 (2008) 115–119.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. Shin, Y. Urzhumov, D. Lim, K. Kim, D.R. Smith, A versatile smart transformation optics device with auxetic elasto-electromagnetic metamaterials, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4084.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Kossiakoff, W.N. Sweet, Systems Engineering Principles and Practice, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
C.C. Cartwright, D.C. Wallace, eds., Nursing Care of the Pediatric Neurosurgery Patient, 2nd ed. 2013, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
E. Biermann, C. Ermel, G. Taentzer, Precise Semantics of EMF Model Transformations by Graph Transformation, in: K. Czarnecki, I. Ober, J.-M. Bruel, A. Uhl, M. Völter (Eds.), Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems: 11th International Conference, MoDELS 2008, Toulouse, France, September 28 - October 3, 2008. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008: pp. 53–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Engineering Failure Analysis.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Petition For ‘Man Eating’ Tiger Relocation Dismissed By Court, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Community Placement of the Mentally Disabled in Michigan], U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.M. Newsom, Love and Creativity: A Shared Dynamic, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Kishkovsky, Modern Dance and Art Bring a Burst of Color to a Gray City, New York Times. (2009) A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEngineering Failure Analysis
AbbreviationEng. Fail. Anal.
ISSN (print)1350-6307
ScopeGeneral Engineering
General Materials Science

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