How to format your references using the Engineering Failure Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Engineering Failure Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Arns, Open access is tiring out peer reviewers, Nature. 515 (2014) 467.
A journal article with 2 authors
N. Phadnis, H.A. Orr, A single gene causes both male sterility and segregation distortion in Drosophila hybrids, Science. 323 (2009) 376–379.
A journal article with 3 authors
Y. Qin, X. Wang, Z.L. Wang, Microfibre-nanowire hybrid structure for energy scavenging, Nature. 451 (2008) 809–813.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Ma, M. Eremets, A.R. Oganov, Y. Xie, I. Trojan, S. Medvedev, A.O. Lyakhov, M. Valle, V. Prakapenka, Transparent dense sodium, Nature. 458 (2009) 182–185.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Y. Posudin, Methods of Measuring Environmental Parameters, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
W. Lasek, Interleukin 12: Antitumor Activity and Immunotherapeutic Potential in Oncology, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
M.A. Sainz, J. Armengol, R. Calm, P. Herrero, L. Jorba, J. Vehi, Interval Arithmetic, in: J. Armengol, R. Calm, P. Herrero, L. Jorba, J. Vehi (Eds.), Modal Interval Analysis: New Tools for Numerical Information, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 121–141.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Engineering Failure Analysis.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, How Antarctica Became Frozen, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Surface Transportation: Restructured Federal Approach Needed for More Focused, Performance-Based, and Sustainable Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Naik, Automating the process of antibiotic susceptibility testing, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
I. Urbina, Tricked While on Land, Abused or Killed at Sea, New York Times. (2015) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEngineering Failure Analysis
AbbreviationEng. Fail. Anal.
ISSN (print)1350-6307
ScopeGeneral Engineering
General Materials Science

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