How to format your references using the Comparative Clinical Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Comparative Clinical Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kristoufek L (2013) BitCoin meets Google Trends and Wikipedia: quantifying the relationship between phenomena of the Internet era. Sci Rep 3:3415
A journal article with 2 authors
Aderem A, Ulevitch RJ (2000) Toll-like receptors in the induction of the innate immune response. Nature 406:782–787
A journal article with 3 authors
Wu W, Wen X, Wang ZL (2013) Taxel-addressable matrix of vertical-nanowire piezotronic transistors for active and adaptive tactile imaging. Science 340:952–957
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Nieuwenhuis J, Adamopoulos A, Bleijerveld OB, et al (2017) Vasohibins encode tubulin detyrosinating activity. Science 358:1453–1456

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Avdeef A (2012) Absorption and Drug Development. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Delcour AH (ed) (2015) Electrophysiology of Unconventional Channels and Pores, 1st ed. 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Reitz-Krueger CL, Nagel AG, Guarnera LA, Reppucci ND (2015) Community Influence on Adolescent Development. In: Gullotta TP, Plant RW, Evans MA (eds) Handbook of Adolescent Behavioral Problems: Evidence-Based Approaches to Prevention and Treatment. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 71–84

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Comparative Clinical Pathology.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Venezuela’s First Carnivorous Dinosaur. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) NASA: Actions Needed to Improve Transparency and Assess Long-Term Affordability of Human Exploration Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bowles A (2012) The development of a standard of care for competency to stand trial evaluations. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fox M (2009) Boris Pokrovsky, 97, Bolshoi Director. New York Times A19

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kristoufek 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Aderem and Ulevitch 2000; Kristoufek 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Aderem and Ulevitch 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Nieuwenhuis et al. 2017)

About the journal

Full journal titleComparative Clinical Pathology
AbbreviationComp. Clin. Path.
ISSN (print)1618-5641
ISSN (online)1618-565X
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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