How to format your references using the Comparative Clinical Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Comparative Clinical Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McNutt MK (2006) Geophysics. Another nail in the plume coffin? Science 313:1394–1395
A journal article with 2 authors
Berg P, Lehman IR (2007) Retrospective: Arthur Kornberg (1918-2007). Science 318:1564
A journal article with 3 authors
Chang M-M, Zhang J, Miao D (2006) A lamprey from the Cretaceous Jehol biota of China. Nature 441:972–974
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Lee J, Dak P, Lee Y, et al (2014) Two-dimensional layered MoS₂ biosensors enable highly sensitive detection of biomolecules. Sci Rep 4:7352

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Plantin J-C (2014) Participatory Mapping. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Poo D (2008) Object-Oriented Programming and Java, Second edition. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Penzenstadler B, Koss D (2008) High Confidence Subsystem Modelling for Reuse. In: Mei H (ed) High Confidence Software Reuse in Large Systems: 10th International Conference on Software Reuse, ICSR 2008, Beijing, China, May 25-29, 2008 Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 52–63

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Comparative Clinical Pathology.

Blog post
Luntz S (2017) Humans Could Take Tips From Naked Mole Rats On How To Live Longer. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) Hispanics’ Schooling: Risk Factors for Dropping Out and Barriers to Resuming Their Education. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Platt JB (2008) Feast in the time of terror: Stalinist temporal paradox and the 1937 Pushkin Jubilee. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Davey M, Walsh MW (2013) For Detroit, a Crisis Born of Bad Decisions and Crossed Fingers. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McNutt 2006).
This sentence cites two references (McNutt 2006; Berg and Lehman 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Berg and Lehman 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleComparative Clinical Pathology
AbbreviationComp. Clin. Path.
ISSN (print)1618-5641
ISSN (online)1618-565X
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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