How to format your references using the Comparative Clinical Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Comparative Clinical Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shelly DR (2010) Migrating tremors illuminate complex deformation beneath the seismogenic San Andreas fault. Nature 463:648–652
A journal article with 2 authors
Jiang YC, Gao J (2014) Strain-induced photoconductivity in thin films of Co doped amorphous carbon. Sci Rep 4:6738
A journal article with 3 authors
Keller RA, Fisk MR, White WM (2000) Isotopic evidence for Late Cretaceous plume-ridge interaction at the Hawaiian hotspot. Nature 405:673–676
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Chen Y, Yang L, Ren F, An K (2014) Visualizing the structural evolution of LSM/xYSZ composite cathodes for SOFC by in-situ neutron diffraction. Sci Rep 4:5179

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bar-Eli M, Plessner H, Raab M (2011) Judgement, Decision Making and Success in Sport. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Shetty NR, Prasad NH, Nalini N (eds) (2015) Emerging Research in Computing, Information, Communication and Applications: ERCICA 2015, Volume 1. Springer India, New Delhi
A chapter in an edited book
Chen C, Zhu S, Guan X, Shen X (2014) Node Deployment for Distributed Consensus Estimation. In: Zhu S, Guan X, Shen X (sherman) (eds) Wireless Sensor Networks: Distributed Consensus Estimation. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 65–79

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Comparative Clinical Pathology.

Blog post
Andrews R (2015) Climate Change Is Going To Cost Us – Literally. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Automated Medical Records: Leadership Needed to Expedite Standards Development. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vento KA (2017) The Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on the Subjective Well-Being of Collegiate Athletes. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M (2013) Keeping Up With His Followers. New York Times E1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Shelly 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Shelly 2010; Jiang and Gao 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jiang and Gao 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleComparative Clinical Pathology
AbbreviationComp. Clin. Path.
ISSN (print)1618-5641
ISSN (online)1618-565X
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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