How to format your references using the Tropical Plant Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tropical Plant Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savage N (2015) Aerodynamics: Vortices and robobees. Nature 521:S64-5
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoffmann DE, Rothenberg KH (2005) Science and law. When should judges admit or compel genetic tests? Science 310:241–242
A journal article with 3 authors
Iborra FJ, Jackson DA, Cook PR (2001) Coupled transcription and translation within nuclei of mammalian cells. Science 293:1139–1142
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Das SB, Joughin I, Behn MD, et al (2008) Fracture propagation to the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet during supraglacial lake drainage. Science 320:778–781

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burnett R, Brunstrom A, Nilsson AG (2005) Perspectives on Multimedia. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Rudolph KL (ed) (2008) Telomeres and Telomerase in Ageing, Disease, and Cancer: Molecular Mechanisms of Adult Stem Cell Ageing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Lee RWJ, Schewitz LP, Raveney BJE, Dick AD (2009) Steroid Sensitivity in Uveitis. In: Forrester JV (ed) Uveitis and Immunological Disorders. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 45–54

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tropical Plant Pathology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Why It Hurts To See Others Suffer: Pain And Empathy Linked In The Brain. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013) Spectrum Management: Preliminary Findings on Federal Relocation Costs and Auction Revenues. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schlumbrecht CE (2015) Do Negative Experiences Influence Substance Use in Adolescent Males and Females? Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S (2002) National Titles Go to Wealing And Lindquist. New York Times D6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Savage 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Hoffmann and Rothenberg 2005; Savage 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hoffmann and Rothenberg 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Das et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleTropical Plant Pathology
ISSN (online)1983-2052

Other styles