How to format your references using the Tropical Plant Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tropical Plant Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Flicek P (2010) Journal club. A computational geneticist looks at mechanisms of chromosomal evolution. Nature 463:713
A journal article with 2 authors
Korkusinski M, Hawrylak P (2014) Quantum strain sensor with a topological insulator HgTe quantum dot. Sci Rep 4:4903
A journal article with 3 authors
McHenry CR, Cook AG, Wroe S (2005) Bottom-feeding plesiosaurs. Science 310:75
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Qiu M, Sun K, Jin J, et al (2014) Properties of the plant- and manure-derived biochars and their sorption of dibutyl phthalate and phenanthrene. Sci Rep 4:5295

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Berg MC (2000) The Fourier-Analytic Proof of Quadratic Reciprocity. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Friedman ES (2009) Handbook of Depression. Springer Healthcare Ltd., Tarporley
A chapter in an edited book
Hayashi Y, Ikeda M (2006) Knowledge Level Design Support for Adaptive Learning Contents: Ontological Consideration of Knowledge Level Structure of SCORM2004 Contents. In: Washio T, Sakurai A, Nakajima K, et al. (eds) New Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence: Joint JSAI 2005 Workshop Post-Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 41–52

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tropical Plant Pathology.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) How Much Radiation Damage Do Astronauts Really Suffer In Space? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) Highway Safety: Further Opportunities Exist to Improve Data on Crashes Involving Commercial Motor Vehicles. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Machula M (2014) Understanding and Predicting Teachers’ Knowledge of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2007) Justices to Hear Challenge to Money-Laundering Law. New York Times A20

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Flicek 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Flicek 2010; Korkusinski and Hawrylak 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Korkusinski and Hawrylak 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Qiu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleTropical Plant Pathology
ISSN (online)1983-2052

Other styles