How to format your references using the Tropical Plant Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tropical Plant Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Murray CB (2009) Materials science. Watching nanocrystals grow. Science 324:1276–1277
A journal article with 2 authors
Finch CE, Crimmins EM (2004) Inflammatory exposure and historical changes in human life-spans. Science 305:1736–1739
A journal article with 3 authors
Son MY, Lee J-K, Kang YC (2014) Fabrication and electrochemical performance of 0.6Li2MnO3-0.4Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 microspheres by two-step spray-drying process. Sci Rep 4:5752
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ma H, Wallbank RWR, Chaji R, et al (2013) An impedance-based integrated biosensor for suspended DNA characterization. Sci Rep 3:2730

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Johnson JL (1997) Probability and Statistics for Computer Science. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Ciarimboli G, Gautron S, Schlatter E (eds) (2016) Organic Cation Transporters: Integration of Physiology, Pathology, and Pharmacology, 1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Leoncini X (2015) Self-Organized Regularity in Long-Range Systems. In: González-Aguilar H, Ugalde E (eds) Nonlinear Dynamics New Directions: Models and Applications. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 79–109

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tropical Plant Pathology.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) How Do Blue Eyes Get Their Color? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Air Traffic Control: Status of the Current Modernization Program and Planning for the Next Generation System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Domina NV (2009) Gender and culture influences on leadership perceptions. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker AL, David Goodman J (2015) Brooklyn Man Is Sought in Two Deaths at Hotels. New York Times A23

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Murray 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Finch and Crimmins 2004; Murray 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Finch and Crimmins 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Ma et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleTropical Plant Pathology
ISSN (online)1983-2052

Other styles